Positive psychology has received much attention in recent decades to the extent that many researchers believe this is the era of positive psychology . Among the most critical variables studied in light of this approach are wellness, self-disclosure, mindfulness, and happiness, and many articles revealed a highly positive relationship between these variables [2, 3]. In the Hellenistic era, philosophers were the ones interested in the topics of happiness and wellness; however, at present, psychologists are now interested in studying happy people and the factors that contribute to living well. Nowadays, these topics are converging with both philosophers and psychologists attempting to integrate these concepts .
Happiness is an indicator of wellness, life satisfaction, and improved self-image [2, 5]. It boosts the immune system, regulates hormone levels, reduces inflammation, and promotes a healthy lifestyle .
Happiness is a positive emotional state with value and significance in all cultures. People differ in their preferences for desirable positive emotions and pleasure states, which Mauss et al.  referred to as valuing happiness. The scientific assumption is that most people strive to achieve higher happiness levels by achieving their goals. Several studies have shown a negative relationship between happiness and low wellness, poor social support, low academic achievement, and mood disorders. Accordingly, happiness is necessary for good life and wellness . Ford and Mauss  have postulated three mechanisms by which happiness affects wellness: very high standards of happiness, over-reviewing pleasure experiences, and activities to follow up on positive outcomes and their permanence, resulting in negative emotions such as self-blame and apology. Accordingly, people seeking to improve their happiness levels may experience anxiety and depression and suffer from more life stresses .
Moreover, Bachik et al.  have stated that maintaining a high level of character strength leads to more positive and joyful results, including happiness, self-acceptance, life satisfaction, self-efficacy, psychological health, physical health, and the presence of a rich and beneficial support network, respect for self and others, job satisfaction, and healthy communication with family . Studies have also shown a relationship between psychotherapy and happiness and wellness and a negative relationship between happiness and depression and people’s low experiences of happiness . Wellness promotes the development of a person’s abilities and talents, allowing them to recognize and appreciate them . Furthermore, wellness is associated with ideal weight maintenance and long-term weight loss .
Although happiness is a subjective self-feeling of well-being and contentment, it is affected by political and social conditions and is negatively affected by the lack of basic conditions of life [15, 16]. Happiness has many definitions, including the personal feeling that everything is fine, it relates to how people evaluate their lives, work, health, and relationships, and it also includes emotions of joy and attachment and the absence of unpleasant emotions such as anger, sadness, and fear . Furthermore, happiness is defined as a stable situation in which the individual balances their desires and life satisfaction. It is also defined as using emotional and mental behavior to reach pleasant and positive feelings . There are three main criteria for happiness: to be valued in all cultures, to be valued in themselves, and to be learnable. Moreover, four characteristics distinguish happy people from others: their love for themselves, their typical sense of control over their lives, a strong sense of control over their lives, and a tendency to be optimistic. Finally, most happy people are extroverted .
In 2008, a longitudinal study was published on the contagion of happiness that followed the lives of 4739 people over 20 years and found that the amount of a person’s happiness is significantly related to the happiness of those around them and that someone’s happiness increases the probability of the happiness of those around them by 25%, indicating that happiness spreads from the happy person to other around them . Based on a review of previous studies, it is clear that Arab research on happiness is few and far between [18, 21, 22]. In any case, most research around the world faces a significant challenge in differentiating between happiness and wellness and that wellness is one of the components of happiness, with a separate definition for each .
The topic of mindfulness has received significant attention around the world, not only recently but also 2500 years ago, as it is one of the teachings of the Buddhist religion. Most religions worldwide use the contents and methods of mindfulness and meditation in some way or another [24, 25]. Mindfulness is defined as paying attention to the present and accepting its experiences with openness and no judgments. The main components of mindfulness are attention, intention, and direction, as well as the ability to focus on current stimuli and control them . Many stimuli in life affect us frequently, and the mind does not respond to some of these stimuli and, in turn, focuses attention on others. Another benefit of mindfulness is that it allows us to distinguish between the various stimuli that we are exposed to . Mindfulness necessitates paying attention to one’s experiences before deciding the path one intends to take. Therefore, we need patience, self-compassion, and acceptance . According to studies, mindfulness is linked to many mental health issues because it can reduce psychological stress. When one’s level of mindfulness is high, this contributes to increasing happiness and sexual desire as well as self-disclosure. A high level of mindfulness also contributes to a better awareness of wellness because the individual will be able to deal with stress successfully when dealing with others [29,30,31,32,33,34].
Because mindfulness includes the mind (consciousness) and the heart (compassion), the quality of mindfulness training consists of both through meditation . According to Kabat-Zinn , mindfulness depends on cultivating awareness to assist people in living the moment they love despite the pain that surrounds them. Mindfulness is nowadays one of the most well-known methods of psychotherapy used by most psychologists in all theoretical directions, from analytical to cognitive behavioral, and it serves as the foundation of the rational emotive treatment approach .
Self-disclosure is of great importance in the field of psychotherapy; it fosters trust and attachment between the therapist and the patient . Self-disclosure does not imply that the individual is entirely transparent but rather that they must keep some secrets that cause embarrassment and insecurity, which might lead back to other psychological problems . For decades, most definitions agreed that self-disclosure is verbal statements related to mental health and to a person’s experiences that are used to improve the patient’s mental health status . Self-disclosure is defined as revealing personal information to others so that others are more aware and familiar with it. Online self-disclosure has become more common as social networking sites have grown in popularity .
According to research, 90% of therapists use self-disclosure; however, this technique is still ambiguous in terms of its effectiveness compared to other counseling methods. This ambiguity caused difficulties in comparing the effectiveness of self-disclosure with other counseling methods, as well as a lack of criteria to evaluate its effectiveness over time [42, 43]. Self-disclosure about significant events in one’s life can take several forms, including verbal and written disclosure, and over the last three decades, it has been shown to improve mental health and reduce negative emotions and pressures .
The study’s problem
Little data exist in the research literature on the relationship between self-disclosure and both happiness and wellness and the relationship between mindfulness and happiness and wellness. No study differentiates between the predictive ability of both self-disclosure and mindfulness in happiness and wellness. Thus, this study explores the extent to which self-disclosure and mindfulness predict happiness and wellness and the difference between them. The scientific assumption states that the greater the self-disclosure, the greater the happiness and wellness and the greater the mindfulness, the greater the happiness and wellness . Therefore, the problem of the study lies in answering the following questions:
Is there a statistically significant relationship between both self-disclosure and mindfulness and happiness (happy or unhappy) and wellness (well and unwell)?
Is there a statistically significant relationship between the study variables that predict the degree of happiness according to the level of happiness (happy and unhappy) and the level of wellness (well and unwell)?
Are there any significant differences in the means of the self-disclosure and mindfulness attributed to the level of happiness (happy and unhappy) and the level of wellness (well and unwell)?
Which is the best predictor of happiness and wellness, self-disclosure or mindfulness?
The purpose and importance of the study
Some studies have found that mindfulness can help with emotional and wellness disorders . As a result, the study’s significance emerged from the ambiguity of the reciprocal relationship between the effects of self-disclosure and mindfulness on happiness and wellness because no study combined happiness and wellness variables to investigate the relationship between self-disclosure and mindfulness and no Arab studies examined these concepts together or in part, according to the researcher’s knowledge. It is essential and valuable to investigate the extent to which self-disclosure is related to mindfulness and whether both self-disclosure and mindfulness predict wellness and happiness. This study aims to explore the differences in the means of self-disclosure and mindfulness according to related variables, which will be reflected on the clinical and therapeutic side and contribute to establishing the relationship between self-disclosure, on the one hand, and mindfulness, on the other hand, and both happiness and wellness.