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Table 3 Comparison between adolescents with conduct disorder, with and without ADHD, and control adolescents regarding left hemispheric cortical thickness (mm)

From: Volumetric brain abnormalities in adolescents with conduct disorder with and without attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: a case control study

Area Control (n = 20) CD only (n = 13) ADHD + CD (n = 14) F p value
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
Frontal pole 3.129a 0.387 2.587b 0.556 2.731a, b 0.537 5.7 0.007
Superior frontal 2.980a 0.229 2.701b 0.147 2.839a, b 0.200 7.7 0.001
Rostral middle frontal 2.541a 0.278 2.127b 0.109 2.344c 0.199 14.1 0.000
Caudal middle frontal 2.674 0.241 2.516 0.207 2.702 0.100 3.5 0.04
Lateral orbitofrontal 2.920a 0.188 2.338b 0.146 2.437b 0.162 57.3 ≤ 0.001
Medial orbitofrontal 2.694a 0.227 2.195b 0.110 2.166b 0.245 35.2 ≤ 0.001
Anterior cingulate 2.777a 0.373 2.450a, b 0.471 2.269b 0.391 6.8 0.003
Posterior cingulate 2.823a 0.232 2.300b 0.237 2.384b 0.286 21.4 ≤ 0.001
Precentral 2.705a 0.179 2.370b 0.149 2.598a 0.117 18.6 ≤ 0.001
Insula 3.232a 0.255 2.954b 0.287 2.939b 0.188 7.8 0.001
Post central 2.201a 0.147 1.960b 0.194 2.046b 0.153 9.3 ≤ 0.001
Precuneus 2.678a 0.206 2.270b 0.158 2.315b 0.147 27.2 ≤ 0.001
Superior temporal 2.945a 0.221 2.598b 0.096 2.786c 0.113 17.5 ≤ 0.001
Lateral occipital 2.267a 0.169 1.874b 0.094 2.073c 0.217 21.5 ≤ 0.001
Mean left hemispheric 2.669a 0.144 2.348b 0.075 2.513c 0.095 31.3 ≤ 0.001
  1. Comparisons were done using ANOVA test for all variables (p values ≤ 0.05)
  2. Different superscripts mean significant difference between groups after Bonferroni correction.