Skip to main content

Table 5 Association between the impulsive hyperactive, anxiety, and 10-items hyperactivity index score of ADHD patients during COVID-19 pandemic and their general characteristics

From: Behavioral symptoms among children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during COVID-19 outbreak: a retrospective prospective cohort study

Variables Impulsive hyperactive score Anxiety score 10-items hyperactivity index
Average (n = 53) High (n = 97) P Average (n = 56) High (n = 94) P Average (n = 46) High (n = 104) P
Age of child (years):
 Mean ± SD 10.4 ± 2.6 10.2 ± 3.3 0.6 10.9 ± 3.4 9.9 ± 2.8 0.04* 11.1 ± 2.6 9.9 ± 3.2 0.02*
Sex, n (%):
 Male 21 (39.6%) 94 (96.9%) < 0.001* 56 (100%) 59 (62.8%) < 0.001* 26 (56.5%) 89 (85.6%) < 0.001**
 Female 32 (60.4%) 3 (3.1%) 0 (0.0%) 35 (37.2%) 20 (43.5%) 15 (14.4%)
Residence, n (%):
 Urban 47 (88.7%) 88 (90.7%) 0.7 50 (89.3%) 85 (90.4%) 0.8 43 (93.5%) 92 (88.2%) 0.3
 Rural 6 (11.3%) 9 (9.3%) 6 (10.7%) 9 (9.6%) 3 (6.5%) 12 (11.5%)
Social class, n (%):
 Low 25 (47.2%) 50 (51.5%) 0.6 31 (55.4%) 44 (46.8%) 0.4 25 (54.3%) 50 (48.1%) 0.1
 Middle 21 (39.6%) 31 (32.0%) 19 (33.9%) 33 (35.1%) 11 (24.0%) 41 (39.4%)
 High 7 (13.2%) 16 (16.5%) 6 (10.7%) 17 (18.1%) 10 (21.7%) 13 (12.5%)
Marital state of the parents, n (%):
 Married 48 (90.6%) 79 (81.4%) 0.07 44 (78.6%) 83 (88.3%) < 0.001* 44 (95.7%) 83 (79.8%) 0.04*
 Divorced 5 (9.4%) 9 (9.3%) 3 (5.4%) 11 (11.7%) 2 (4.3%) 12 (11.5%)
 Widow 0 (0.0%) 9 (9.3%) 9 (16.1%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 9 (8.7%)
The number of other siblings
 Median (range) 2 (0–4) 2 (0–4) 0.9 2 (0–4) 1 (0–3) 0.8 2 (0–3) 2 (0–4) 0.4
Confirmed positive cases of COVID-19 among family members, n (%):
 Yes 27 (50.9%) 63 (64.9%) 0.09 33 (58.9%) 57 (60.6%) 0.8 24 (52.2%) 66 (63.5%) 0.2
 No 26 (49.1%) 34 (35.1%) 23 (41.1%) 37 (39.4%) 22 (47.8%) 38 (36.5%)
Lost family member due to COVID-19, n (%):
 Yes 0 (0.0%) 18 (18.6%) < 0.001* 9 (16.1%) 9 (9.6%) 0.5 3 (6.5%) 15 (14.4%) 0.04*
 No 53 (100%) 79 (81.4%) 47 (83.9%) 85 (90.4%) 43 (93.5%) 89 (85.6%)
Father’s current working state, n (%):
 Go to work as regular 32 (60.4%) 65 (67.0%) 0.3 36 (64.3%) 61 (64.9%) 0.003* 26 (56.5%) 71 (68.3%) 0.2
 Online working from home 15 (28.3%) 17 (17.5%) 8 (14.3%) 24 (25.5%) 14 (30.4%) 18 (17.3%)
 Not working because of COVID-19 6 (11.3%) 12 (12.4%) 12 (21.4%) 6 (6.4%) 6 (13.0%) 12 (11.5%)
 Not working since before COVID-19 0 (0.0%) 3 (3.1%) 0 (0.0%) 3 (3.2%) 0 (0.0%) 3 (2.9%)
Mother’s current working state, n (%):
 Not working because of COVID-19 20 (37.7%) 41 (42.3%) 0.3 23 (41.1%) 38 (40.4%) 0.9 22 (47.8%) 39 (37.5%) 0.2
 Not working since before COVID-19 12 (22.6%) 29 (29.9%) 15 (26.8%) 26 (27.7%) 9 (19.6%) 32 (30.8%)
 Online working from home 15 (28.3%) 15 (15.5%) 12 (21.4%) 18 (19.1%) 12 (26.1%) 18 (17.3%)
 Go to work as regular 6 (11.3%) 12 (12.4%) 6 (10.7%) 12 (12.8%) 3 (6.5%) 15 (14.4%)
Direct follow-up with a psychiatrist since COVID-19, n (%):
 Yes 3 (5.7%) 3 (3.1%) 0.3 3 (5.4%) 3 (3.2%) 0.5 3 (6.5%) 3 (2.9%) 0.3
 No 50 (94.3%) 94 (96.9%) 53 (94.6%) 91 (96.8%) 43 (93.5%) 101 (97.1%)
The compliance of the ADHD children on treatment as compared to before COVID-19:
 Compliant 58 (59.7%) 16 (30.1%) 0.032* 47 (84%) 48 (51.1%) 0.006* 28 (60.8%) 32 (30.7%) 0.032*
 Non-compliant 39 (40.3%) 37 (69.8%) 9 (16%) 46 (48.9%) 18 (39.2%) 72 (69.3%)
The parent’s attitude towards the child’s behavior problems as compared to before COVID-19, n (%):
 Not abusive 9 (17.0%) 17 (17.6%) 0.1 0 (0.0%) 26 (27.6%) < 0.001* 3 (6.5%) 23 (22.1%) 0.9
 Verbally abusive 18 (34.0%) 12 (12.4%) 6 (10.7%) 24 (25.5%) 18 (39.1%) 12 (11.5%)
 Both verbally and physically abusive 26 (49.0%) 68 (70.0%) 50 (89.3%) 44 (46.9%) 25 (54.4%) 69 (66.4%)
  1. *significant, **highly siginificant