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Table 1 Characteristics of all participants

From: Association of Internet gaming disorder symptoms with anxiety and depressive symptoms and substance use: an international cross-sectional study

Characteristics Participants P Difference between proportions, %
All (N = 3529) Males (n = 1260) Females (n = 2269)
Age 21.30 ± 2.74 21.54 ± 2.89 21.17 ± 2.64 < 0.001  
Previous psychiatric diagnosis 219 (6.2%) 75 (6.0%) 144 (6.3%) 0.642 0.3%
Hours of Internet browsing per day 5.71 ± 4.47 5.57 ± 4.28 5.79 ± 4.58 0.153  
Alcohol use     0.125  
 Not at all 2552 (72.3%) 878 (69.7%) 1674 (73.8%)   4.1%
 One or 2 days 737 (20.9%) 284 (22.5%) 453 (20.0%)   2.5%
 Several days 186 (5.3%) 76 (6.0%) 110 (4.8%)   1.2%
 More than half the days 34 (1.0%) 14 (1.1%) 20 (0.9%)   0.2%
 Nearly every day 20 (0.6%) 8 (0.6%) 12 (0.5%)   0.1%
Marihuana use     0.006  
 Not at all 3334 (94.5%) 1166 (92.5%) 2168 (95.5%)   3.0%
 One or 2 days 117 (3.3%) 55 (4.4%) 62 (2.7%)   1.7%
 Several days 45 (1.3%) 22 (1.7%) 23 (1.0%)   0.7%
 More than half the days 11 (0.3%) 6 (0.5%) 5 (0.2%)   0.3%
 Nearly every day 22 (0.6%) 11 (0.9%) 11 (0.5%)   0.4%
Other substances use 728 (20.6%) 222 (17.6%) 506 (22.3%) 0.001 4.7%
GAD-7 score 6.17 ± 4.96 5.78 ± 4.93 6.39 ± 4.97 < 0.001  
PHQ-9 score 7.98 ± 5.63 7.62 ± 5.58 8.19 ± 5.65 0.004  
ICMH-IGD total sample score 13.30 ± 6.03 15.45 ± 6.81 12.11 ± 5.19 < 0.001  
Croatian sample score 437 (12.4%) 104 (8.3%) 333 (14.7%) < 0.001 6.4%
Serbian sample score 316 (9.0%) 91 (7.2%) 225 (9.9%) 0.007 2.7%
Portuguese sample score 126 (3.6%) 31 (2.5%) 95 (4.2%) 0.008 1.7%
Turkish sample score 244 (6.9%) 94 (7.5%) 150 (6.6%) 0.341 0.9%
Vietnamese sample score 426 (12.1%) 141 (11.2%) 285 (12.6%) 0.231 1.4%
Polish sample score 156 (4.4%) 43 (3.4%) 113 (5.0%) 0.030 1.6%
Indonesian sample score 673 (19.1%) 188 (14.9%) 485 (21.4%) < 0.001 6.5%
English sample score 1151 (32.6%) 568 (45.1%) 583 (25.7%) < 0.001 19.4%
  1. p-value calculated Student’s t-test for continuous variables and the χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables
  2. GAD-7 Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale-7, PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire-9, ICMH-IGD Internet Gaming Disorder Self-report for College/University Students by the International Child Mental Health Study Group