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Table 4 Assessment of executive function by Wisconsin card sorting test

From: Evaluation of cognitive impairment in patients with major depressive disorder in remission

Wisconsin card sorting test variables Patients group (n = 60) Control group (n = 60) T P
Trial administered (conceptualization)
 Mean ± SD 126.7 ± 6.6 109.2 ± 19.7 6.4 < 0.001 (HS)
Categories completed (abstract thinking)
 Mean ± SD 0.75 ± 1.6 5.2 ± 1.4 15.8 < 0.001 (HS)
Perseverative errors (cognitive flexibility)
 Mean ± SD 20.9 ± 13.9 14.5 ± 6.8 3.2 0.0017 (S)
Failure to maintain set (sustained attention)
 Mean ± SD 1.6 ± 1.6 1.46 ± 1.3 0.4 0.6 (NS)
  1. There were statistically highly significant differences between patient and control groups regarding executive function with the patient group performed poor regarding trial administered (conceptualization) and categories completed (abstract ability) (p < 0.001) and also had a statistically significant higher percentage of perseverative errors (cognitive flexibility) (p < 0.05)