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Table 4 Relationship between sleep quality and substance abuse

From: Exploring the relationship of sleep quality with drug use and substance abuse among university students: a cross-cultural study

Sleep quality Abuser Non-abuser X2 P value
Very good Good Bad Very bad Very good Good Gad Very bad
Sedatives 14 55 26 18 245 389 132 56 24.188 0.000
Inhalants 25 83 27 18 234 361 131 56 13.77 0.003
Cigarettes 14 40 21 21 245 404 137 53 35.322 0.000
Narghile 6 12 5 7 253 432 153 67 10.341 0.016
Hookah 6 16 5 8 253 428 153 66 11.89 0.008
Chewing tobacco 9 23 11 10 250 421 147 64 11.54 0.009
Energy drinks 8 32 22 18 251 412 136 56 40.26 0.000
Soft drinks 44 102 49 31 215 342 109 43 24.35 0.000
Total of PSQI Abuser Non-abuser T test P value
Mean SD Mean SD
Sedatives 12.33 4.235 9.15 4.317 7.343 0.000
Inhalants 11.45 4.368 9.16 4.344 5.951 0.000
Cigarettes 11.59 4.926 9.30 4.308 4.861 0.000
Narghile 12.51 4.559 9.42 4.384 4.088 0.000
Hookah 11.60 4.994 9.47 4.394 2.601 0.009
Chewing tobacco 11.06 5.119 9.45 4.369 2.579 0.010
Energy drinks 12.18 5.305 9.29 4.257 5.663 0.000
Soft drinks 11.01 4.581 9.07 4.275 5.836 0.000