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Table 4 Frequency of cognitive impairment among patients with diabetes according to sociodemographic and disease variables

From: Cognitive impairment among patients with diabetes in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study

Variable Cognitive impairment (MOCA score 26 and below) Severe cognitive impairment (MOCA score 20 and below)
Yes, n (%) P Cramer’s V Yes, n (%) P Cramer’s V
Age in years
 < 40 years 10 (55.6) 0.001 0.22 1 (5.6) 0.008 0.19
 40–59 years 105 (76.6)    43 (31.4)   
 ≥ 60 years 101 (88.6)    47 (41.2)   
Gender
 Females 145 (78.4) 0.240   70 (37.8) 0.039 0.13
 Males 71 (84.5)    21 (25.0)   
Level of education
 Below bachelor 149 (90.3) < 0.001 0.32 81 (49.09) < 0.001 0.41
 Bachelor 67 (64.4)    10 (9.62)   
Income
 Enough with saving 23 (82.1) 0.026 0.16 6 (21.4) 0.022 0.17
 Enough 160 (77.3)    67 (32.4)   
 Not enough 33 (97.1)    18 (52.9)   
Employment
 Employed 57 (69.5) 0.003 0.18 17 (20.7) 0.003 0.18
 Unemployed 159 (85.0)    74 (39.6)   
Practicing exercise
 Yes 132 (79) 0.508   47 (28.1) 0.012 0.15
 No 184 (82.4)    44 (43.1)   
Duration in years
< 10 years 92 (80.0) 0.041 0.15 36 (31.3) 0.097  
10–19 years 59 (72.9)    23 (28.4)   
≥ 20 years 65 (89.0)    32 (43.8)   
Diabetic distress
 Normal, score < 2 124 (75.2) 0.008 0.16 53 (32.1) 0.456  
 Any level, score ≥ 2 92 (88.5)    38 (36.5)   
Level of HbA1C
 Controlled, ≤ 6.5 mmol/L 66 (81.5) 0.671   23 (28.4) 0.278  
 Uncontrolled, > 6.5 mmol/L 137 (79.2)    61 (35.3)   
Dyslipidemia
 Normal levels 21 (75.0) 0.470   9 (32.1) 0.853  
 Abnormal levels 193 (80.8)    81 (33.9)   
Comorbidities
 No ophthalmic problems 89 (76.7) 0.200   24 (20.7) < 0.001 0.24
 Yes (self-reported) 127 (83.0)    67 (43.8)   
  1. Cognitive impairment: measured by Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale (MoCA), total score equals 30; the score was adjusted for the low level of education by adding 1 point for an individual who has 12 years or fewer of formal education. The cutoff of cognitive impairment is < 26 points, and the cutoff of severe cognitive impairment is < 20 points. Practicing exercise was considered for practicing 1–5 days/week, 30 min each. Dyslipidemia: high levels of LDL, TG, and low level of HDL. Other comorbidities did not show significant association with the cognitive impairment