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Table 2 Clinical and biochemical profiles of patients with diabetes

From: Cognitive impairment among patients with diabetes in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study

Characteristics N (%)/median (IQR)
*BMI (weight in kg/height in m2)
 < 18.5–24.9 12 (4.6)
 25–29.9 64 (24.4)
 ≥ 30 186 (71.0)
Practicing exercise
 Yes (1–5 days/week, 30 min each) 167 (62.1)
 No 102 (37.9)
Type of diabetes
 Type 1 34 (12.6)
 Type 2 235 (87.4)
Duration in years
 < 10 years 115 (42.8)
 ≥ 10 years 154 (57.2)
Frequency of testing
 Glucose home testing at least once daily 110 (40.9)
 HbA1c, at least once every 3 months 226 (84.0)
*HbA1C%
 Controlled, ≤ 6.5 81 (31.9)
 Uncontrolled, > 6.5 173 (68.1)
*Blood pressure
 High systolic blood pressure > 140 mmHg 88 (33.0)
 High diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg 16 (6.0)
 Combined, systolic > 140/diastolic > 90 mmHg 98 (36.7)
Comorbidities
 Hepatic 67 (24.9)
 Renal 38 (14.1)
 Cardiac 32 (11.9)
 Neurological 15 (5.6)
 Self-reported ophthalmic problems 153 (56.9)
 Self-reported numbness 138 (51.3)
Diabetes distress
 Distress of clinical importance, score ≥ 3 33 (12.3)
 Distress of any level, score ≥ 2 104 (38.7)
*Lipid profile
 LDL in mmol/L, median (IQR) 2.45 (1.04)
 High level of LDL ≥ 2.59 mmol/L 118 (44.2)
 Total cholesterol in mmol/L, median (IQR) 4.27 (1.36)
 High level of total cholesterol ≥ 5.18 mmol/L 51 (19.1)
 Triglycerides in mmol/L 1.39 (0.73)
 High level of triglycerides ≥ 1.69 mmol/L 70 (26.2)
 HDL in mmol/L, median (IQR) 1.14 (0.4)
 Low level of HDL ≤ 1.55 mmol/L 227 (85.0)
  1. *Data were missing for two cases each in lipid profile and blood pressure, seven cases in BMI, and in 15 cases in HbA1c