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Table 3 The association between depression severity and sample characteristics (n = 1049)

From: Prevalence of anxiety and depression among Palestinian university students: a cross-sectional study during COVID-19 pandemic

Variable Depression severity based on CES-D score χ2 p value
No depression (1–9) Mild (10–15) Moderate (16–24) Severe (> 24)
Gender Male 32 (7.9%) 29 (7.2%) 101 (25.1%) 241 (59.8%) 6.946 0.074
Female 52 (8.0%) 74 (11.5%) 176 (27.2%) 344 (53.3%)
Field of study Human medicine 27 (7.9%) 29 (8.5%) 80 (23.3%) 207 (60.3%) 19.973 0.018
Health sciences 28 (12.0%) 33 (14.1%) 63 (26.9%) 110 (47.0%)
Scientific non-health majors 13 (6.5%) 14 (7.0%) 58 (29.0%) 115 (57.5%)
Literary majors 16 (5.9%) 27 (9.9%) 76 (27.9%) 153 (56.3%)
Study year First year 29 (14.8%) 33 (16.8%) 51 (26.0%) 83 (42.3%) 55.604 0.000
Second year 21 (6.7%) 30 (9.5%) 95 (30.2%) 169 (53.7%)
Third year 12 (5.6%) 21 (9.8%) 52 (24.3%) 129 (60.3%)
Fourth year 15 (7.9%) 19 (9.9%) 39 (20.4%) 118 (61.8%)
Fifth year 6 (5.0%) 0 (0.0%) 38 (32.0%) 75 (63.0%)
Sixth year 1 (7.2%) 0 (0.0%) 2 (14.3%) 11 (78.6%)
Sleeping duration/day Less than 6 h 16 (6.0%) 24 (9.0%) 58 (21.8%) 168 (63.2%) 26.747 0.000
6 to 8 h 59 (9.2%) 68 (10.6%) 196 (30.5%) 320 (49.8%)
More than 8 h 9 (6.4%) 11 (7.9%) 23 (16.4%) 97 (69.3%)
Smoking No 70 (9.4%) 91 (12.2%) 200 (26.9%) 383 (51.5%) 30.097 0.000
Yes 14 (4.6%) 12 (3.9%) 77 (25.2%) 202 (66.2%)
Source of food Homemade food 28 (9.1%) 35 (11.4%) 80 (26.1%) 164 (53.4%) 45.29 0.000
Restaurants 3 (1.6%) 2 (1.0%) 45 (23.6%) 141 (73.8%)
Homemade food and restaurants 53 (9.6%) 66 (12.0%) 152 (27.6%) 280 (50.8%)
Place of residence Village 35 (6.8%) 53 (10.4%) 121 (23.7%) 302 (59.1%) 8.997 0.174
City 45 (9.5%) 46 (9.7%) 134 (28.3%) 248 (52.4%)
Camp 4 (6.2%) 4 (6.2%) 22 (33.8%) 35 (53.8%)