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Table 4 Association between the conduct, learning, and psychosomatic score of the ADHD patients during COVID-19 pandemic and their general characteristics

From: Behavioral symptoms among children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during COVID-19 outbreak: a retrospective prospective cohort study

Variables Conduct score Learning score Psychosomatic score
Average (n = 84) High (n = 66) P Average (n = 29) High (n = 121) P Average (n = 98) High (n = 52) P
Age of child (years):
 Mean ± SD 9.7 ± 2.6 11.0 ± 3.5 0.02* 10.3 ± 2.2 10.3 ± 3.2 0.9 10.8 ± 3.1 9.2 ± 2.6 0.002*
Sex, n (%):
 Male 52 (61.9%) 63 (95.5%) < 0.001* 23 (79.3%) 92 (76.0%) 0.7 89 (90.8%) 26 (50.0%) < 0.001**
 Female 32 (38.1%) 3 (4.5%) 6 (20.7%) 29 (24.0%) 9 (9.2%) 26 (50.0%)
Residence, n (%):
 Urban 78 (92.9%) 57 (86.4%) 0.2 29 (100%) 106 (87.6%) 0.04* 86 (87.8%) 49 (94.2%) 0.2
 Rural 6 (7.1%) 9 (13.6%) 0 (0.0%) 15 (12.4%) 12 (12.2%) 3 (5.8%)
Social class, n (%):
 Low 30 (35.7%) 45 (68.2%) < 0.001* 14 (48.3%) 61 (50.4%) 0.5 54 (55.1%) 21 (40.4%) 0.6
 Middle 32 (38.1%) 20 (30.3%) 8 (27.6%) 44 (36.4%) 21 (21.4%) 31 (59.6%)
 High 22 (26.2%) 1 (1.5%) 7 (24.1%) 16 (13.2%) 23 (23.5%) 0 (0.0%)
Marital state of the parents, n (%):
 Married 79 (94.0%) 48 (72.7%) < 0.001* 29 (100%) 98 (81.0%) 0.04* 77 (78.6%) 50 (96.2%) 0.01*
 Divorced 5 (6.0%) 9 (13.6%) 0 (0.0%) 14 (11.6%) 12 (12.2%) 2 (3.8%)
 Widow 0 (0.0%) 9 (13.6%) 0 (0.0%) 9 (7.4%) 9 (9.2%) 0 (0.0%)
The number of other siblings:
 Median (range) 2 (0 – 4) 1 (0–4) 0.1 2 (0 – 4) 2 (0–4) 0.5 2 (0–4) 2 (0–3) 0.2
Confirmed positive cases of COVID-19 among family members, n (%):
 Yes 39 (46.4%) 51 (77.3%) < 0.001* 12 (41.4%) 78 (64.5%) 0.02* 63 (64.3%) 27 (51.9%) 0.1
 No 45 (53.6%) 15 (22.7%) 17 (58.6%) 43 (35.5%) 35 (35.7%) 25 (48.1%)
Lost family member due to COVID-19, n (%):
 Yes 6 (7.1%) 12 (18.2%) <0.001* 0 (0.0%) 18 (14.9%) 0.03* 12 (12.3%) 6 (11.5%) 0.6
 No 78 (92.9%) 54 (81.8%) 29 (100%) 103 (85.1%) 86 (87.8%) 46 (88.5%)
Father’s current working state, n (%):
 Go to work as regular 49 (58.3%) 48 (72.7%) 0.04* 15 (51.7%) 82 (67.8%) 0.3 63 (64.3%) 34 (65.4%) 0.001**
 Online working from home 23 (27.4%) 9 (13.6%) 8 (27.6%) 24 (19.8%) 17 (17.3%) 15 (28.8%)
 Not working because of COVID-19 9 (10.7%) 9 (13.6%) 6 (20.7%) 12 (9.9%) 18 (18.4%) 0 (0.0%)
 Not working since before COVID-19 3 (3.6%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 3 (2.5%) 0 (0.0%) 3 (5.8%)
Mother’s current working state, n (%):
 Not working because of COVID-19 34 (40.5%) 27 (40.9%) < 0.001* 14 (48.3%) 47 (38.8%) < 0.001* 35 (35.7%) 26 (50.0%) 0.2
 Not working since before COVID-19 20 (23.8%) 21 (31.8%) 0 (0.0%) 41 (33.9%) 27 (27.6%) 14 (26.9%)
 Online working from home 27 (32.1%) 3 (4.5%) 15 (51.7%) 15 (12.4%) 21 (21.4%) 9 (17.3%)
 Go to work as regular 3 (3.6%) 15 (22.7%) 0 (0.0%) 18 (14.9%) 15 (15.3%) 3 (5.8%)
Direct follow-up with a psychiatrist since COVID-19, n (%):
 Yes 6 (7.1%) 0 (0.0%) 0.03* 3 (10.3%) 3 (2.5%) 0.05* 6 (6.1%) 0 (0.0%) 0.07
 No 78 (92.9%) 66 (100%) 26 (89.7%) 118 (97.5%) 92 (93.9%) 52 (100%)
The compliance of the ADHD children on treatment as compared to before COVID-19:
 Compliant 29 (44%) 9 (10.7%) 0.004* 15 (51.7%) 26 (21.4%) 0.017* 59 (60%) 18(34.6%) 0.06
 Non-compliant 37(56%) 75 (89.3%) 14 (48.3%) 95 (78.2%) 39 (40%) 34 (65.4%)
The parent’s attitude towards the child’s behavior problems as compared to before COVID-19, n (%):
 Not abusive 17 (20.2%) 9 (13.6%) < 0.001* 3 (10.3%) 23 (19.0%) 0.09 6 (6.1%) 20 (38.4%) < 0.001**
 Verbally abusive 28 (33.3%) 2 (3.0%) 3 (10.3%) 27 (22.3%) 18 (18.4%) 12 (23.1%)
 Both verbally and physically abusive 39 (46.4%) 55 (83.3%) 23 (79.4%) 71 (55.7%) 74 (75.5%) 20 (38.5%)
  1. *significant, **highly siginificant