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Table 1 General characteristics of the study participants

From: Behavioral symptoms among children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during COVID-19 outbreak: a retrospective prospective cohort study

Variables Study participants (n = 150) Chi-square
Chi- Sign.
Age of child (years): Mean ± SD 10.3 ± 3.1 8.07 0.707 ns
Sex, n (%):
 Male 115 (76.7%) 13.89 < 0.001**
 Female 35 (23.3%)
Residence, n (%):
 Urban 135 (90.0%) 63.04 < 0.001**
 Rural 15 (10%)
Social class, n (%):
 Low 75 (50.0%) 60.20 < 0.001**
 Middle 52 (34.7%)
 High 23 (15.3%)
Marital state of the parents, n (%):
 Married 127 (84.7%) 96.24 < 0.001**
 Divorced 14 (9.3%)
 Widow 9 (6.0%)
The number of other siblings, n (%):
 Median (range) 2 (1–4) 20.47 < 0.001**
Confirmed positive cases of COVID-19 among family members, n (%):
 Yes 90 (60.0%) 8.49 < 0.001**
 No 60 (40.0%)
Lost family member due to COVID-19, n (%):
 Yes 18 (12.0%) 72.98 < 0.001**
 No 132 (88.0%)
Father’s current working state, n (%):
 Go to work as regular 97 (64.7%) 79.51 < 0.001**
 Online working from home 32 (21.3%)
 Not working because of COVID-19 18 (12.0%)
 Not working since before COVID-19 3 (2.0%)
Mother’s current working state, n (%):
 Not working because of COVID-19 61 (40.7%) 20.69 < 0.001**
 Not working since before COVID-19 41 (27.3%)
 Online working from home 30 (20.0%)
 Go to work as regular 18 (12.0%)
Direct behavioral therapy’s center support since COVID-19, n (%):
 Yes 0 (0.0%) > 0.05 ns
 No 150 (100%)
Direct follow-up with a psychiatrist since COVID-19, n (%):
 Yes 6 (4.0%) 56.82 < 0.001**
 No 144 (96.0%)
The compliance of the ADHD children on treatment as compared to before COVID-19:
 Compliant 39 (25.9%) 4.26 0.039*
 Non-compliant 111 (74.1%)
The parent’s managements of the child’s behavior problems as compared to before COVID-19, n (%):
 Not abusive 26 (17.3%) 35.16 < 0.001**
 Verbally abusive 30 (20.0%)
 Both verbally and physically abusive 94 (62.7%)
  1. *significant, **highly siginificant