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Table 6 Relations between elderly happiness level, among studied elderly people and their demographic characteristics (n = 235)

From: Relationship between morality, happiness, and social support among elderly people

Variables Elderly happiness level No χ2 P
Happy ≥ 3.5 Unhappy < 3.5
No. % No. %
Age (in years)
 <65 48 43.2 63 56.8 111 0.21 0.65
 ≥65 50 40.3 74 59.7 124   
Gender
 Male 43 43.0 57 57.0 100 0.12 0.73
 Female 55 40.7 80 59.3 135   
Residence
 Rural 20 46.5 23 53.5 43 0.5 0.42
 Urban 78 40.6 114 59.4 192   
Marital status
 Single 0 0.0 4 100.0 4   
 Married 57 42.9 76 57.1 133 2.9 0.4
 Divorced 3 42.9 4 57.1 7   
 Widowed 38 41.8 53 58.2 91   
Education
 Illiterate/read and write 0 0.0 8 100.0 8 6.9 0.073
 Primary education 6 37.5 10 62.5 16   
 Secondary 38 47.5 42 52.5 80   
 University or higher 54 41.2 77 58.8 131   
Working condition
 Work 34 55.7 27 44.3 61 6.7 0.01
 Do not work 64 36.8 110 63.2 174   
Previous work
 Worker 3 50.0 3 50.0 6   
 Crafts man or farmer 3 60.0 2 40.0 5 6.3 0.18
 Free business 0 0.0 3 100.0 3   
 Officer 83 44.1 105 55.9 188   
 Housewife 9 27.3 24 72.7 33   
With whom life
 Wife/husband 57 43.5 74 56.5 131   
 One of the sons 12 27.3 32 72.7 44 11.4 0.01
 One of the relatives 0 0.0 6 100.0 6   
 Alone 29 53.7 25 46.3 54   
Income source
 Pension 96 42.1 132 57.9 228 f 0.7
 Property income 2 28.6 5 71.4 7   
Income
 Insufficient 20 25.6 58 74.4 78   
 Sufficient 65 47.4 72 52.6 137 14.6 0.001
 Sufficient and save 13 65.0 7 35.0 20   
Chronic diseases
 Yes 82 44.3 103 55.7 185 2.4 0.12
 No 16 32.0 34 68.0 50   
Medication
 Yes 82 44.3 103 55.7 185 2.4 0.12
 No 16 32.0 34 68.0 50   
  1. χ2 Chi-square test, f Fisher exact test
  2. p < 0.05 significant; p < 0.001 highly significant; p > 0.05 non-significant