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Table 4 Relations between morale level and socio-demographic characteristics of studied elderly (n = 235)

From: Relationship between morality, happiness, and social support among elderly people

Variables Elderly moral level No χ 2 P
High N = 31 Moderate N = 110 Low N = 94
No. % No. % No. %
Age (in years)
 <65 13 11.7 62 55.9 36 32.4 111 7.04 0.03
 ≥65 18 14.5 48 38.7 58 46.8 124   
Gender
 Male 16 16.0 44 44.0 40 40.0 100 1.3 0.51
 Female 15 11.1 66 48.9 54 40.0 135   
Residence
 Rural 11 25.6 14 32.6 18 41.9 43 8.4 0.015
 Urban 20 10.4 96 50.0 76 39.6 192   
Marital status
 Single 0 0.0 2 50.0 2 50.0 4 2.8 0.83
 Married 20 15.0 63 47.4 50 37.6 133   
 Divorced 0 0.0 3 42.9 4 57.1 7   
 Widowed 11 12.1 42 46.2 38 41.8 91   
Education
 Illiterate/read and write 0 0.0 3 37.5 5 62.5 8   
 Primary education 2 12.5 9 56.3 5 31.3 16 9.4 0.15
 Secondary 13 16.3 44 55.0 23 28.7 80   
 University or higher 16 12.2 54 41.2 61 46.6 131   
Working condition
 Work 13 21.3 28 45.9 20 32.8 61 5.4 0.074
 Do not work 18 10.3 82 47.1 74 42.5 174   
Previous work
 Worker 0 0.0 0 0.0 6 100.0 6   
 Crafts man or farmer 0 0.0 3 60.0 2 40.0 5 12.6 0.12
 Free business 0 0.0 2 66.7 1 33.3 3   
 Officer 28 14.9 86 45.7 74 39.4 188   
 Housewife 3 9.1 19 57.6 11 33.3 33   
With whom live
 Wife/husband 20 15.3 61 46.6 50 38.2 131   
 One of the sons 5 11.4 21 47.7 18 40.9 44 2.5 0.86
 One of the relatives 0 0.0 4 66.7 2 33.3 6   
 Alone 6 11.1 24 44.4 24 44.4 54   
Income source
 Pension 30 13.2 105 46.1 93 40.8 228 2.1 0.34
 Property income 1 14.3 5 71.4 1 14.3 7   
Income
 Insufficient 3 3.8 31 39.7 44 56.4 78 20.2 0.0001
 Sufficient 22 16.1 69 50.4 46 33.6 137   
 Sufficient and save 6 30.0 10 50.0 4 20.0 20   
Chronic diseases
 Yes 14 7.6 91 49.2 80 43.2 185 24.2 0.0001
 No 17 34.0 19 38.0 14 28.0 50   
Medication taken
 Yes 14 7.6 91 49.2 80 43.2 185 24.2 0.0001
 No 17 34.0 19 38.0 14 28.0 50   
  1. χ2 Chi-square test
  2. p < 0.05 significant; p < 0.001 highly significant; p > 0.05 non-significant