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Table 4 Determinants of depression, anxiety and stress among the healthcare professionals (N=283)

From: Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on psychological health of a sample of the health care workers in the western region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Variables Depression Anxiety Stress
Present
(n=49)
N (%)
Absent
(n=234)
N (%)
p value Present
(n=90)
N (%)
Absent
(n=193)
N (%)
p value Present
(n=49)
N (%)
Absent
(n=234)
N (%)
p value
Type of healthcare professional
 Doctor 26 (7.7) 175 92.3) 0.002 47 (23.4) 154 (76.6) <0.000 29 (14.4) 172 (85.6) 0.04
 Nurses 23 28.0) 59 (72.0) 43 (52.4) 39 (47.6) 20 (24.4) 62 (75.6)
Primary work in the Emergency (ER/UC) or Intensive Care Unit
 Yes 16 (23.2) 53 (76.8) 0.14 25 (36.2) 44 (63.8) 0.36 17 (24.6) 52 (75.4) 0.06
 No 33 (15.4) 181 (84.6 65 (30.4) 149 (69.6) 32 (14.9) 182 (85.1)
Having experience of working during any of the previous epidemics or pandemics
 Yes 19 (21.8) 68 (78.2) 0.18 38 (43.7) 49 (56.3) 0.004 15 (17.2) 72 (82.8) 0.98
 No 30 (15.3) 166 (84.7) 52 (26.5) 144 (72.4) 34 (17.3) 162 (82.7)
Tested positive for COVID-19
 Yes 6 (18.8) 26 (81.2) 0.82 14 (43.7) 18 (56.3) 0.12 8 (33.3) 24 (66.7) 0.22
 No 43 (17.1) 208 (82.9) 76 (30.3) 175 (69.7) 41 (16.3) 210 (83.7)
Perception of COVID-19 as a disease
 Mild/benign infection 14 (20.3) 55 (79.7) 0.45 22 (31.9) 47 (68.1) 0.98 11 (15.9) 58 (84.1) 0.43
 Moderate/severe disease 35 (16.3) 179 (83.7) 68 (31.8) 146 (68.2 38 (17.7) 176 (82.3)
Received specific training for COVID-19
 Yes 31 (19.5) 128 (81.5) 0.27 49 (30.8) 110 (69.2) 0.68 28 (17.6) 131 (82.4) 0.71
 No 18 (14.5) 106 (85.5) 41 (33.1) 83 (66.9) 21 (16.9) 103 (83.1)
Received appropriate guidelines on updated procedures related to personal safety to follow at work
 Yes 37 (16.3) 190 (83.7) 0.36 68 (29.9) 159 (70.1) 0.17 37 (16.3) 190 (83.7) 0.36
 No 12 (21.4) 44 (78.6) 22 (39.3) 34 (61.7) 12 (83.7) 44 (78.6)
Institution provided adequate PPE
 Yes 33 (16.4) 168 (83.6) 0.53 59 (29.3) 142 (70.7) 0.16 33 (16.4) 168 (83.6) 0.53
 No 16 (19.5) 66 (81.5) 31 (37.8) 51 (62.2) 16 (19.5) 66 (81.5)
Institution made psychological or mental health support available
 Yes 10 (8.4) 109 (91.6) 0.0007 23 (19.3) 96 (80.7) 0.0001 9 (7.6) 110 (92.4) 0.0002
 No 39 (23.8) 125 (76.2) 67 (40.8) 97 (59.2) 40 (24.4) 124 (75.6)
Feeling that you are being pushed beyond your training
 Yes 26 (22.2) 91 (77.8) 0.06 53 (45.3) 64 (64.7) 0.00004 22 (18.8) 95 (81.2) 0.57
 No 23 (13.8) 143 (86.2) 37 (22.3) 129 (77.7) 27 (16.2) 139 (83.8)
Redirected to activities related to COVID-19
 Yes 22 (15.2) 122 (84.8) 0.36 42 (29.2) 102 (70.8) 0.23 23 (15.9) 121 (84.1) 0.54
 No 27 (19.4) 112 (80.6) 48 (34.5) 91 (65.5) 26 (18.7) 113 (81.3)
Engaged in COVID-19 activities for
≤30 days 8 (11.9) 59 (88.1) 0.18 19 (28.4) 48 (61.6) 0.51 10 (14.9) 57 (85.1) 0.55
>30 days 41 (19.2) 175 (81.8) 71 (32.9) 145 (67.1) 39 (18.1) 177 (81.9)
Quality of life impacted due to COVID-19
 Yes 44 (21.2) 163 (78.8) 0.003 72 (34.8) 135 (65.2) 0.07 45 (21.7) 162 (78.3) 0.001
 No/remained same 5 (6.6) 71 (93.4) 18 (23.7) 58 (76.3) 4 (5.3) 72 (94.7)
Ability to perform household activities affected due to COVID-19
 Yes 44 (18.8) 190 (81.2) 0.15 80 (34.2) 154 (65.8) 0.06 45 (19.2) 189 (80.8) 0.06
 No 5 (10.2) 44 (89.8) 10 (20.4) 39 (79.6) 4 (8.2) 45 (91.8)