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Table 5 The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) among the studied samples

From: Effect of long-term administration of clonazepam, carbamazepine, and valproate on cognitive, psychological, and personality changes in adult epilepsy: a case–control study

MMPI-2 variables Group 1
N = 35
N (%)
Group 2
N = 18
N (%)
Group 3
N = 31
N (%)
Group 4
N = 15
N (%)
Group 5
N = 40
N (%)
P value
Hypochondriasis
 Normal 4 (11.4%) 3 (16.7%) 4 (12.9%) 0 (0%) 14 (35%) 0.000*
 Borderline 23 (65.7%) 12 (66.7%) 15 (48.4%) 15 (100%) 26 (65%)  
 Symptomatic 8 (22.9%) 3 (16.7%) 12 (38.7%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)  
Depression
 Normal 14 (40%) 3 (16.7%) 1 (3.2%) 9 (60%) 30 (75%) 0.000*
 Borderline 10 (28.6%) 12 (66.7%) 14 (45.2%) 3 (20%) 10 (25%)  
 Symptomatic 11 (31.4%) 3 (16.7%) 16 (51.6%) 3 (20%) 0 (0%)  
Conversion hysteria
 Normal 5 (14.3%) 3 (16.7%) 4 (12.9%) 3 (20%) 17 (42.5%) 0.000*
 Borderline 21 (60%) 12 (66.7%) 12 (38.7%) 9 (60%) 23 (57.5%)  
 Symptomatic 9 (25.7%) 3 (16.7%) 15 (48.4%) 3 (20%) 0 (0%)  
Psychopathic Deviate
 Normal 14 (40%) 9 (50%) 6 (19.4%) 0 (0%) 33 (82.5%) 0.000*
 Borderline 20 (57.1%) 9 (50%) 18 (58.1%) 15 (100%) 7 (17.5%)  
 Symptomatic 1 (2.9%) 0 (0%) 7 (22.6%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)  
Masculinity–femininity
 Normal 7 (20%) 12 (66.7%) 8 (25.8%) 0 (0%) 19 (47.5%) 0.000*
 Borderline 17 (48.6%) 6 (33.3%) 21 (67.7%) 15 (100%) 12 (30%)  
 Symptomatic 11 (31.4%) 0 (0%) 2 (6.5%) 0 (0%) 9 (22.5%)  
Paranoia
 Normal 20 (57.1%) 9 (50%) 9 (29%) 6 (40%) 33 (82.5%) 0.000*
 Borderline 14 (40%) 9 (50%) 14 (45.2%) 9 (60%) 6 (15%)  
 Symptomatic 1 (2.9%) 0 (0%) 8 (25.8%) 0 (0%) 1 (2.5%)  
Psychasthenia
 Normal 17 (48.6%) 3 (16.7%) 9 (29%) 9 (60%) 33 (82.5%) 0.000*
 Borderline 18 (51.4%) 15 (83.3%) 17 (54.8%) 6 (40%) 7 (17.5%)  
 Symptomatic 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 5 (16.1%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)  
Schizophrenia
 Normal 16 (45.7%) 9 (50%) 6 (19.4%) 9 (60%) 34 (85%) 0.000*
 Borderline 14 (40%) 9 (50%) 20 (64.5%) 6 (40%) 6 (15%)  
 Symptomatic 5 (14.3%) 0 (0%) 5 (16.1%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)  
Hypomania
 Normal 26 (74.3%) 6 (33.3%) 16 (51.6%) 6 (40%) 32 (80%) 0.000*
 Borderline 9 (25.7%) 12 (66.7%) 9 (29%) 9 (60%) 8 (20%)  
 Symptomatic 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 6 (19.4%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)  
Social introversion
 Normal 20 (57.1%) 15 (83.3%) 8 (25.8%) 9 (60%) 36 (90%) 0.000*
 Borderline 12 (34.3%) 3 (16.7%) 18 (58.1%) 6 (40%) 4 (10%)  
 Symptomatic 3 (8.6%) 0 (0%) 5 (16.1%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)  
  1. Group 1: carbamazepine, group 2: valproate, group 3: carbamazepine and clonazepam, group 4: valproate and clonazepam, group 5: epileptic patients without antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), *significant P value