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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the geriatric sample and univariate analysis with odds ratio (95% C.I) for psychiatric morbidity (GHQ > 2)

From: Anxiety and depression in the elderly due to COVID-19 pandemic: a pilot study

Variable Categories Frequency (%) Odds ratio (95% C.I.) p value
Age 60–70 years 69 (75%) Reference 0.102
70 years and above 23 (25%) 2.691 (0.821–8.821)
Gender Male 59 (64.1%) Reference 0.231
Female 33 (35.9% 0.436 (0.112–1.693)
Caregiver Self 15 (16.3%) Reference  
Spouse 70 (76.1%) 3.19 (0.38–26.50) 0.282
Children 7 (7.6%) 0.00 0.999
Marital status Married 83 (90.2%) Reference  
Widowed 9 (9.8%) 0.673 (0.078–5.84) 0.720
Education Below matric 20 (21.8%) Reference  
Intermediate 11 (12.0%) 2.125 (0.349–12.95) 0.414
Graduate 50 (54.3%) 0.493 (0.10–2.43) 0.385
Professional 11 (12.0%) 3.238 (0.57–18.38) 0.185
Occupation Professional/own business 7 (7.6%) Reference  
Retired 66 (71.7%) 0.211 (0.040–1.10) 0.065
Homemaker 19 (20.7%) 0.157 (0.019–1.274) 0.083
Family income 10 k–20 k 26 (28.3%) Reference  
20 k–30 k 43 (46.7%) 2.333 (0.446–12.20) 0.315
> 30 k 23 (25%) 3.333 (0.579–19.18) 0.178
Family type Nuclear 81 (88%) 0.783 (0.150–4.076) 0.771
Extended/joint 11 (12%) Reference  
Chronic illness Present 46 (50%) 4.505 (1.165–17.42) 0.029*
Absent 46 (50%) Reference  
  1. *Statistically significant (p < 0.05)