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Table 3 Supernatural Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ) and relationship of these beliefs with DUP and number of contacts prior to seeing a psychiatrist

From: Pathways to care and supernatural beliefs among patients with psychotic disorders in Nepal

Supernatural Attitude Questionnaire Prevalence of various supernatural beliefs
(N = 133)
DUP of patients with the particular belief
(no)
Mean (SD)
DUP of patients without the particular belief
(yes) mean (SD)
Mann-Whitney U test
(2-tailed p value)
Number of contacts prior to seeing a psychiatrist in those having the belief Number of contacts prior to seeing a psychiatrist in those not having the belief Mann-Whitney U test (2-tailed significance)
1. Do you believe in JaduTona (black magic)? 86 (64.7%) 3.59 (10.41) 10.53 (20.63) 1941 (0.71) 4.14 (6.95) 2.02 (2.33) 1941(0.70)
2. Do you believe in BhutPret (ghosts)? 73 (54.9%) 3.81 (11.38) 8.76 (18.47) 1876 (0.15) 4.48 (7.48) 2.07 (2.14) 1878 (0.15)
3. Do you believe in Oparikasar (spirit intrusion)? 88 (66.2%) 6.62 (17.71) 4.90 (8.10) 1786.5 (0.36) 4.10 (6.91) 2.00 (2.16) 1656.5 (0.117)
Number of patients with belief in one of the above three 106 (79.7%) 6.01 (16.20) 6.16 (10.23) 1392 (0.83) 3.71 (6.35) 2.15 (2.78) 1204.5 (0.197)
4. Do you think that black magic can cause mental illness in a person? 77 (57.9%) 4.16 (11.20) 8.63 (19.11) 2014 (0.52) 4.39 (7.29) 2.02 (2.20) 1815 (0.114)
5. Do you think that ghosts can cause mental illness in a person? 61 (45.9%) 4.37 (12.56) 7.46(16.99) 2164 (0.89) 5.31 (7.93) 1.76 (2.08) 1363 (< 0.001)***
6. Do you think that spirit intrusion can cause mental illness in a person? 77 (57.9%) 7.42 (18.91) 4.15(7.07) 2028 (0.90) 4.65 (7.23) 1.66 (2.04) 1385 (< 0.001)***
7. Do you think that mental illness can be caused by Devi Devtaprakop (curse of God or Goddess)? 76 (57.1%) 2.89 (3.48) 10.25 (22.20) 1943 (0.31) 4.76 (7.23) 1.56 (2.04) 1256 (< 0.001)***
8. Do you think that mental illness can be caused by graha-nachhatra (celestial influences)? 83 (62.4%) 2.65 (3.61) 11.68 (23.32) 1793.5 (0.19) 4.35 (7.08) 1.80 (1.95) 1617 (0.03)*
9. Do you think that mental illness can be caused by effects of dissatisfied or evil spirit? 64 (48.1%) 3.42 (3.89) 8.47 (20.46) 1689.5 (0.02)* 5.20 (7.83) 1.71 (1.84) 1492 (0.001)***
10. Do you think that one’s mental health can be affected as retribution of a bad deed in previous life? 82 (61.7%) 6.36 (15.23) 5.54 (15.14) 1460.5 (0.003)** 4.80 (6.99) 1.12 (1.51) 912 (< 0.001)***
Number of patients attributing their mental illness to one of the above 96 (72.2%) 6.53 (17.02) 4.77 (8.57) 1581 (0.33) 4.09 (6.57) 1.57 (2.49) 1080 (< 0.001)***
11. Do you think that the patient’s behaviour or abnormal experiences are due to black magic? 19 (14.3%) 2.47 (4.30) 6.64 (16.20) 730.5 (0.23) 1.16 (1.17) 3.76 (6.21) 692.5 (0.011)*
12. Do you think that the patient’s behaviour or abnormal experiences are due to ghosts? 7 (5.3%) 5.29 (6.28) 6.09 (15.50) 433 (0.94) 1.43 (0.53) 3.50 (5.98) 349.5 (0.35)
13. Do you think that the patient’s behaviour or abnormal experiences are due to spirit intrusion? 31 (23.3%) 11.97(23.76) 4.24 (10.86) 1398.5 (0.33) 3.84 (3.45) 3.25 (6.39) 1129(0.14)
14. Do you think that the patient’s behaviour or abnormal experiences are due to wrath of God or Goddess? 20 (15%) 4.00 (4.37) 6.41 (16.31) 969 (0.31) 9.35 (12.52) 2.34 (2.46) 909.5 (0.158)
15. Do you think that the patient’s behaviour or abnormal experiences are due to evil spirit? 19 (14.3%) 3.44 (4.15) 6.48 (16.24) 1036.5 (0.76) 2.00 (1.20) 3.62 (6.26) 1063.5 (0.90)
16. Do you think that by worship/rituals/black magic, the patient’s behaviour can be changed for the better? 79 (59.4%) 6.93 (18.61) 4.75 (7.67) 1929 (0.35) 2.18 (1.87) 5.17 (8.61) 2018.5 (0.59)
17. During the present illness of the patient, did you or any other member of family visit or consult as faith healer? 110 (82.7%) 6.08 (15.98) 5.88 (10.54) 980 (0.09) 3.92 (6.26) 0.87 (1.39) 616 (< 0.001)***
18. Was any worship/ritual/black magic performed during the present illness of the patient with a view to make him better? 117 (88.0%) 6.34 (16.05) 3.89 (4.61) 914 (0.88) 3.42 (5.64) 3.19 (7.31) 762.5 (0.22)
19. Does the patient believe in or talk about black magic? 14 (10.5%) 7.13 (18.92) 5.92 (14.73) 741.5 (0.50) 2.71 (1.77) 3.47 (6.14) 675.5 (0.24)
20. Does the patient believe in or talk about ghosts? 89 (66.9%) 6.87 (15.53) 4.37 (14.35) 1703 (0.22) 2.73 (3.83) 4.73 (8.47) 1956.5 (0.99)
21. Does the patient believe in or talk about spirit intrusion? 22 (16.5%) 2,91 (3.99) 6.66 (16.43) 1106 (0.49) 3.59 (6.35) 3.35 (5.76) 1213.5 (0.96)
22. Does the patient believe in or talk about wrath of God or Goddess? 113 (85%) 5.99 (15.11) 6.37 (15.7) 982.5 (0.35) 2.74 (4.43) 7.05 (10.21) 787.5 (0.03)
23. Does the patient believe in or talk about celestial influences? 30 (22.6%) 2.44 (3.61) 7.09 (16.97) 1130 (0.03) 1.27 (1.86) 4.0 (6.43) 902 (< 0.001)***
24. Does the patient believe in or talk about dissatisfied or evil spirit? 16 (12%) 0.65 (0.83) 6.78 (16.01) 386.5 (< 0.001)*** 1.13 (1.75) 3.70 (6.13) 566 (0.01)*
25. Did he/she talk about or believe in these things even before falling ill? 18 (13.5%) 2.25 (3.77) 6.64 (16.15) 693.5 (0.02) 2.56 (6.98) 3.52 (5.66) 647.5 (0.001)**
26. During the present illness, did the patient visit a faith healer or was he/she taken there at his/her request? 16 (12%) 4.26 (6.50) 6.29 (15.97) 908.5 (0.85) 3.38 (7.25) 3.39 (5.65) 831.5 (0.46)
27. Do people in your locality and community generally believe in black magic and such influences? 96 (72.2%) 5.36 (12.60) 7.83 (20.43) 1285 (0.01)* 4.35 (6.60) 0.89 (0.99) 784 (< 0.001)***
28. Does the patient belong to any specific or special guru, spiritual or religious sect? 24 (18%) 5.07 (5.76) 6.26 (16.52) 991 (0.06) 3.75 (3.53) 3.31 (6.24) 968 (0.04)*
  1. DUP duration of untreated psychosis