Skip to main content

Table 5 Association between stress and other characteristics in mothers of ADHD children

From: The negative psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a cross-section study

Variables Stress P
Yes (n = 29) No (n = 25)
Age of child (years):    
 Mean ± SD 10.6 ± 3.9 9.8 ± 3.1 0.4
Sex of child, n (%)    
 Male 25 (86.2%) 13 (52.0%) 0.006*
 Female 4 (13.8%) 12 (48.0%)  
Residence, n (%)    
 Urban 26 (89.7%) 22 (88.0%) 0.8
 Rural 3 (10.3%) 3 (12.0%)  
Social class, n (%)    
 Low 19 (65.5%) 5 (20.0%) 0.003*
 Middle 7 (24.1%) 11 (44.0%)  
 High 3 (10.3%) 9 (36.0%)  
Marital status, n (%)    
 Married 22 (75.9%) 24 (96.0%) 0.04*
 Divorced and widow 7 (24.1%) 1 (4.0%)  
The number of other siblings, n (%)    
 Median (range) 3 (2-4) 2 (1-4) 0.003*
Presence of confirmed COVID-19 cases among family members, n (%)    
 Yes 7 (24.1%) 9 (36.0%) 0.3
 No 22 (75.9%) 16 (64.0%)  
Lost family member due to COVID-19, n (%)    
 Yes 5 (17.2%) 1 (4.0%) 0.1
 No 24 (82.8%) 24 (96.0%)  
Father’s working status, n (%)    
 Go to work as usual 3 (10.2%) 24 (96.0%) < 0.001*
 Work from home 13 (44.8%) 0 (0.0%)  
 Not working since before COVID-19 or as a result of COVID-19 13 (44.8%) 1 (4.0%)  
Mother’s working status, n (%)    
 Lost work as a result of COVID-19 9 (31.0%) 13 (52.0%) 0.09
 Not working since before COVID-19 6 (20.7%) 8 (32.0%)  
 Work from home 8 (27.6%) 3 (12.0%)  
 Go to work as usual 6 (20.7%) 1 (4.0%)  
Financial drawbacks of the COVID-19 outbreak, n (%)    
 No drawbacks 2 (6.9%) 14 (56.0%) < 0.001*
 Little drawbacks 10 (34.5%) 11 (44.0%)  
 Big drawbacks 17 (58.6%) 0 (0.0%)  
Domestic violence toward the mother as compared to before COVID-19, n (%)    
 Present 25 (86.2%) 0 (0.0%) < 0.001*
 Absent 4 (13.8%) 25 (100%)  
Mother’s assessment of the period of change and restrictions as compared to before COVID-19, n (%)    
 Very demanding. 29 (100%) 15 (60.0%) 0.007*
 Demanding 0 (0.0%) 9 (36.0%)  
 Not demanding 0 (0.0%) 1 (4.0%)  
The compliance of the ADHD children on treatment as compared to before COVID-19, n (%)    
 Compliant 9 (31.1%) 15 (60%) 0.032*
 Non-compliant 20 (68.9%) 10 (40%)  
Bigger challenges in the management of the child’s meals as compared to before COVID-19    
 Yes 22 (75.9%) 11 (44%) 0.034*
 No 7 (24.1%) 14 (56%)  
Bigger challenges in the management of the child’s structured activities as compared to before COVID-19    
 Yes 21 (72.4%) 9 (36%) 0.007*
 No 8 (27.6%) 16 (64%)  
Bigger challenges in the management of the child’s sleep as compared to before COVID-19    
 Yes 20 (68.9%) 12 (48%)  
 No 9 (31.1%) 13 (52%) 0.117
  1. Tests of significance: Student’s t test, Pearson’s Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test
  2. *Statistically significant (p value < 0.05)