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Table 4 Association between anxiety and other characteristics in mothers of ADHD children

From: The negative psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a cross-section study

Variables Anxiety P
Yes (n = 33) No (n = 21)
Age of child (years)    
 Mean ± SD 11.0 ± 3.2 9.4 ± 2.0 0.04*
Sex of child, n (%)    
 Male 25 (75.8%) 13 (61.9%) 0.3
 Female 8 (24.2%) 8 (38.1%)  
Residence, n (%)    
 Urban 30 (90.9%) 18 (85.7%) 0.6
 Rural 3 (9.1%) 8 (14.3%)  
Social class, n (%)    
 Low 15 (45.5%) 9 (42.8%) 0.6
 Middle 12 (36.4%) 6 (28.6%)  
 High 6 (18.1%) 6 (28.6%)  
Marital status, n (%)    
 Married 25 (75.8%) 21 (100%) 0.01*
 Divorced and widow 8 (24.2%) 0 (0.0%)  
The number of other siblings, n (%)    
 Median (range) 3 (2-4) 1 (1-3) < 0.001*
Presence of confirmed COVID-19 cases among family members, n (%)    
 Yes 15 (45.5%) 1 (4.8%) 0.001*
 No 18 (54.5%) 20 (95.2%)  
Lost family member due to COVID-19, n (%)    
 Yes 5 (15.2%) 1 (4.8%) 0.2
 No 28 (84.8%) 20 (95.2%)  
Father’s working status, n (%)    
 Go to work as usual 15 (45.5%) 17 (81.0%) 0.004*
 Work from home 13 (39.4%) 0 (0.0%)  
 Not working since before COVID-19 or as a result of COVID-19 5 (15.1%) 4 (19.0%)  
Mother’s working status, n (%)    
Lost work as a result of COVID-19 5 (15.1%) 17 (81.0%) < 0.001*
Not working since before COVID-19 10 (30.3%) 4 (19.0%)  
Work from home 11 (33.3%) 0 (0.0%)  
Go to work as usual 7 (21.2%) 0 (0.0%)  
Financial drawbacks of the COVID-19 outbreak, n (%)    
 No drawbacks 10 (30.3%) 6 (28.6%) 0.2
 Little drawbacks 10 (30.3%) 11 (52.4%)  
 Big drawbacks 13 (39.4%) 4 (19.0%)  
Domestic violence toward the mother as compared to before COVID-19, n (%):    
 Present 15 (45.5%) 10 (47.6%) 0.9
 Absent 18 (54.5%) 11 (52.4%)  
Mother’s assessment of the period of change and restrictions as compared to before COVID-19, n (%)
 Very demanding
 Demanding
 Not demanding
31 (93.9%)
2 (6.1%)
0 (0.0%)
13 (61.9%)
7 (33.3%)
1 (4.8%)
0.01*
The compliance of the ADHD children on treatment as compared to before COVID-19, n (%)    
 Compliant 7 (21.2%) 11 (52.4%) 0.017*
 Non-compliant 26 (78.8%) 10 (47.6%)  
Bigger challenges in the management of the child’s meals as compared to before COVID-19    
 Yes 20 (60.6%) 9 (42.8%) 0.202
 No 13 (39.4%) 12 (57.2%)  
Bigger challenges in the management of the child’s structured activities as compared to before COVID-19    
 Yes 22 (66.7%) 6 (28.5%) 0.006*
 No 11 (33.3%) 15 (71.5%)  
Bigger challenges in the management of the child’s sleep as compared to before COVID-19    
 Yes 25 (75.5%) 12 (57.2%) 0.151
 No 8 (24.5%) 9 (42.8%)  
  1. Tests of significance: Student’s t test, Pearson’s Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test
  2. *Statistically significant (p value < 0.05)