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Table 3 Association between depression and other characteristics in mothers of ADHD children

From: The negative psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a cross-section study

Variables Depression P
Yes (n = 29) No (n = 25)
Age of child (years)    
 Mean ± SD 10.3 ± 3.3 9.8 ± 2.6 0.5
Sex of child, n (%)    
 Male 26 (89.7%) 12 (48.0%) < 0.001*
 Female 3 (10.3%) 13 (52.0%)  
Residence, n (%)    
 Urban 27 (93.1%) 21 (84.0%) 0.3
 Rural 2 (6.9%) 4 (16.0%)  
Social class, n (%)    
 Low 20 (69.0%) 4 (16.0%) < 0.001*
 Middle 6 (20.7%) 12 (48.0%)  
 High 3 (10.3%) 9 (36.0%)  
Marital status, n (%)    
 Married 21 (72.4%) 25 (100%) 0.005*
 Divorced and widow 8 (27.6%) 0 (0.0%)  
The number of other siblings, n (%)    
 Median (range) 3 (2-4) 2 (1-4) 0.003*
Presence of confirmed COVID-19 cases among family members, n (%)    
 Yes 8 (27.6%) 8 (32.0%) 0.7
 No 21 (72.4%) 17 (68.0%)  
Lost family member due to COVID-19, n (%)    
 Yes 6 (20.7%) 0 (0.0%) 0.03*
 No 23 (79.3%) 25 (100%)  
Father’s working status, n (%)    
 Go to work as usual 3 (10.3%) 24 (96.0%) < 0.001*
 Work from home 12 (41.4%) 1 (4.0%)  
 Not working since before COVID-19 or as a result of COVID-19 14 (48.3%) 0 (0.0%)  
Mother’s working status, n (%)    
 Lost work as a result of COVID-19 10 (34.5%) 12 (48.0%) 0.3
 Not working since before COVID-19 7 (24.1%) 7 (28.0%)  
 Work from home 6 (20.7%) 5 (20.0%)  
 Go to work as usual 6 (20.7%) 1 (4.0%)  
Financial drawbacks of COVID-19 outbreak, n (%)    
 No drawbacks 2 (6.9%) 14 (56.0%) < 0.001*
 Little drawbacks 11 (37.9%) 10 (40.0%)  
 Big drawbacks 16 (55.2%) 1 (4.0%)  
Domestic violence toward the mother as compared to before COVID-19, n (%)    
 Present 25 (86.2%) 0 (0.0%) < 0.001*
 Absent 4 (13.8%) 25 (100%)  
Mother’s assessment of the period of change and restrictions as compared to before COVID-19, n (%)    
 Very demanding 29 (100%) 15 (60.0%) 0.007*
 Demanding 0 (0.0%) 9 (36.0%)  
 Not demanding 0 (0.0%) 1 (4.0%)  
The compliance of the ADHD children on treatment as compared to before COVID-19, n (%)    
 Compliant 3 (10.34%) 11 (44%) 0.004*
 Non-compliant 26 (89.66%) 14 (56%)  
Bigger challenges in the management of the child’s meals as compared to before COVID-19    
 Yes 20 (68.9%) 10 (40%) 0.032*
 No 9 (31.1%) 15 (60%)  
Bigger challenges in the management of the child’s structured activities as compared to before COVID-19    
 Yes 21 (72.4%) 12 (48%) 0.066
 No 8 (27.6%) 13 (52%)  
Bigger challenges in the management of the child’s sleep as compared to before COVID-19    
 Yes 19 (65.5%) 11 (44%) 0.112
 No 10 (34.5%) 14 (56%)  
  1. Tests of significance: Student’s t test, Pearson’s Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test
  2. *Statistically significant (p value < 0.05)