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Table 2 Association between socio-demographic, Sheehan Disability Scale, Pandemic Grief Scale, and COVID-19 infection among studied group

From: Pandemic Grief Scale in detection of grief reaction among physicians in COVID-19 era

Variables COVID-19 Test of significance
Negative
n = 506
Positive
n = 394
Age/years 42.91 ± 10.58 43.02 ± 10.66 t = 0.155
p = 0.877
Sex
 Male 284(56.1) 220(55.8) χ2 = 0.008
 Female 222(43.9) 174(44.2) p = 0.931
Residence
 Urban 425(84.0) 340(86.3) χ2 = 0.921
 Rural 81(16.0) 54(13.7) p = 0.337
Marital status
 Single 67(13.2) 54(13.7) χ2 = 0.084, P = 0.77
 Married 404(79.8) 318(80.7) χ2 = 0.11,P = 0.745
 Divorced 22(4.3) 18(4.6) χ2 = 0.03, P = 0.87
 Widow 13(2.6) 4(1.0) χ2 = 2.89, P = 0.09
Smokers
 Non-smoker 365(72.1) 292(74.1) χ2 = 0.439
 Smoker 141(27.9) 102(25.9) p = 0.507
Relation to disease
 Immediate family member 119(23.5) 112(28.4) χ2 = 2.79, P = 0.09
 Extended family member 211(41.7) 154(39.1) χ2 = 0.627, P = 0.428
 Close friend 68(13.4) 41(10.4) χ2 = , 1.91, P = 0.17
 Acquaintance 55(10.9) 38(9.6) χ2 = 0.358, P = 0.549
 Others 53(10.5) 49(12.4) χ2 = 0.848, P = 0.356
Position
 Resident 32(6.3) 22(5.6) χ2 = 0.215, P = 0.642
 Demonstrator 25(4.9) 19(4.8) χ2 = 0.007, P = 0.935
 Assistant lecturer 28(5.5) 27(6.9) χ2 = 0.672, P = 0.412
 Lecturer 71(14.0) 50(12.7) χ2 = 0.342, P = 0.558
 Assistant prof 54(10.7) 66(16.8) χ2 = 7.08, P = 0.008*
 Prof 135(26.7) 106(26.9) χ2 = 0.006, P = 0.94
 Specialist 46(9.1) 34(8.6) χ2 = 0.058, P = 0.809
 Consultant 115(22.7) 70(17.8) χ2 = 3.34, P = 0.07
Pandemic Grief Scale 10.56 ± 2.38 12.06 ± 2.01 t = 9.95
    p < .001*
Duration of the grief
 < 1 225(44.5) 167(42.4) χ2 = 1.49
 1–3 153(30.2) 113(28.7) P = 0.47
 4–6 128(25.3) 114(28.9)  
Seeking psychiatric help
 No 224(44.3) 166(42.1) χ2 = 0.412
 Yes 282(55.7) 228(57.9) P = 0.521
Sheehan Disability Scale 17.28 ± 5.29 18.08 ± 4.98 t = 2.31
p = 0.02*
Patient Heath Questionnaire-9 19.54 ± 4.33 20.34 ± 4.16 t = 2.79
p = 0.005*
Degree of impact on quality of life n = 506 n = 394  
 Not difficult at all    
 Somewhat difficult 163(32.2) 104(26.4) χ2 = 3.59, P = 0.058
 Very difficult 100(19.8) 70(17.8) χ2 = 0.58, P = 0.447
 Extremely difficult 131(25.9) 108(27.4) χ2=0.263, P = 0.608
  112(22.1) 112(28.4) χ2=4.69, P = 0.03*
  1. t Student’s t test, Chi-square test, parameters described as mean ± SD or as number and percentage