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Table 5 Severity categories of depression and anxiety in total cohort and subgroups

From: The hidden crisis: COVID-19 and impact on mental health of medical students in Pakistan

   Gender   Phase of study   Past H/O psychiatric illness  
  N (%)   No. (%)   No. (%)
Severity category Total No. (%)
1100
Men
(N = 344)
Women
(N = 756)
P value Preclinical
(N = 446)
Clinical
(N = 653)
  Yes
(N = 299)
No
(N = 801)
P Value
PHQ-9, depression symptoms
 Normal 274 (24.9) 120 (34.9) 154 (20.4) 0.000** 93 (20.9) 181 (27.7) 0.021* 38 (12.7) 236 (29.5) 0.000**
 Mild 297 (27.0) 89 (25.9) 208 (27.5) 123 (27.6) 174 (26.6)   61 (20.4) 236 (29.5)
 Moderate 209 (19.1) 58 (16.9) 152 (20.1) 82 (18.4) 127 (19.4)   65 (21.7) 145 (18.1)
 Severe 319 (29.0) 77 (22.4) 242 (32.0) 148 (33.2) 171 (26.2)   135 (45.2) 184 (23.0)
GAD-7, anxiety symptoms
 Normal 367 (33.4) 171 (49.7) 196 (25.9) 0.000** 141 (31.6) 226 (34.6) 0.385 35 (11.7) 232 (41.4) 0.000**
 Mild 288 (26.3) 61 (17.7) 228 (32.2) 112 (25.1) 176 (27.0)   76 (25.4) 213 (26.6)
 Moderate 222 (20.2) 52 (15.1) 170 (22.5) 93 (20.9) 129 (19.8)   82 (27.4) 140 (17.5)
 Severe 222 (20.2) 60 (17.4) 162 (21.4) 100 (22.4) 122 (18.7)   106 (35.5) 116 (14.5)
  1. Abbreviations: PHQ-9 The 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, GAD-7 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder
  2. *P value statistically significant <.05
  3. **P value < 0.001