Skip to main content

Table 4 Mean scores and standard deviation of depression, anxiety, and its subscales during the COVID-19 outbreak in total cohort and subgroups

From: The hidden crisis: COVID-19 and impact on mental health of medical students in Pakistan

  Gender   Phase of study   Past H/O psychiatric illness  
   Mean (SD)   Mean (SD)   Mean (SD)  
Scale Total score
Mean (SD)
Men Women P value Preclinical Clinical   Yes No P value
PHQ-9, depression symptoms 10.46 (7.3) 8.78 (7.22) 11.2 (7.26) 0.005* 11.21 (7.50) 9.95 (7.18) 0.005* 13.43 (7.17) 9.35 (7.09) 0.000**
GAD-7, anxiety symptoms 8.52 (6.2) 7.00 (6.38) 9.22 (6.11) 0.034* 9.01 (6.51) 8.19 (6.09) 0.034* 11.83 (5.75) 7.29 (6.01) 0.000**
Suicidal risk (RASS total score)
(Max score 1015)
396.20 (310.36) 326.25 (301.01) 428.02 (309.52) 0.000** 391.47 (306.25) 399.11 (313.47) 0.689 522.91 (315.87) 348.90 (294.82) 0.000**
Intention scale
(Max score 500)
129.45 (171.29) 101.88 (158.48) 141.94 (175.49) 0.000** 133.44 (174.71) 126.77 (169.13) 0.526 184.92 (187.26) 108.74 (160.21) 0.000**
Life scale
(Max score 390)
188.21 (111.60) 157.82 (112.76) 202 (108.35) 0.000** 183.25 (110.82) 191.36 (112.01) 0.237 235.23 (104.29) 170.66 (109.19) 0.000**
History scale
(Max score 300)
78.54 (81.98) 66.56 (81.58) 83.99 (81.68) 0.000** 74.78 (77.95) 80.98 (84.59) 0.218 102.76 (86.88) 69.49 (78.23) 0.000**
  1. Abbreviations: PHQ-9 The 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, GAD-7 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder, RASS Risk Assessment Suicidality Scale, SD standard deviation 
  2. *P value statistically significant <.05
  3. **P value statistically significant <.001