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Table 2 Prevalence of depression and anxiety among medical students during the COVID-19 outbreak (total N = 1100)

From: The hidden crisis: COVID-19 and impact on mental health of medical students in Pakistan

Variable Gender Phase of study Past H/O psychiatric illness
  Total (N = 1100) Males (N = 344) Females (N = 756) P value Preclinical
(N = 446)
Clinical
(N = 653)
P value Past H/O psychiatric illness present
(N = 299)
Past H/O psychiatric illness absent
(N = 801)
P value
  n (%) n (%) n (%)   n (%) n (%)   n (%) n (%)  
Depressiona
 Absent 571 (51.9) 209 (60.8) 362 (47.9) 0.000* 216 (48.4) 366 (56) 0.031* 99 (33.1) 472 (58.9) 0.000**
 Present 529 (48.1) 135 (39.2) 394 (52.1) 230 (51.6) 298 (45.6)   200 (66.9) 329 (41.1)  
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)b
 Absent 565 (51.4) 215 (62.5) 350 (46.3) 0.000** 214 (48.0) 350 (53.6) 0.039* 82 (27.4) 483 (60.3) 0.000**
 Present 535 (48.6) 129 (37.5) 406 (53.7) 232 (52.0) 303 (46.4)   217 (72.6) 318 (39.7)  
  1. Abbreviations: n number, GAD generalized anxiety disorder
  2. aDepressive symptoms included individuals who scored ≥ 8 points
  3. bGAD was defined as individuals who scored ≥ 7 points
  4. *P value statistically significant < 0.05
  5. **P value statistically significant < 0.001