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Table 2 Target symptoms stratified according to participant’s baseline characteristics

From: A look behind the scenes: COVID-19 impact on depression and perceived stress of UAE population

Variables Average depression score ± SD P-value Average anxiety score ± SD P-value
Total 10.5 ± 6.6   18.7 ± 4.2 -
Age categories   0.009   0.001
 18–20 13.4 ± 7.4   20.7 ± 4.2  
 21–40 10.5 ± 6.2   18.8 ± 4.1  
 41–60 7.7 ± 6.9   16.3 ± 3.1  
 >60 4.0 ± 0.0   13.0 ± 0.0  
Gender   0.681   0.001
 Male 10.2 ± 6.2   17.0 ± 3.9  
 Female 10.6 ± 6.7   19.2 ± 4.1  
Marital status   0.11   0.11
 Single 9.9 ± 6.9   18.3 ± 4.2  
 Married 11.3 ± 6.1   19.2 ± 4.1  
 Divorced 6.2 ± 7.4   16.0 ± 2.9  
Employment   0.48   0.49
 Governmental 10.7 ± 7.0   18.4 ± 4.2  
 Private 10.2 ± 6.6   18.7 ± 4.1  
 Self-employed 13.0 ± 6.6   20.3 ± 3.8  
 Unemployed 9.8 ± 5.9   18.5 ± 4.7  
Educational level   0.36   0.01
 Less than high school 12.2 ± 7.1   20.3 ± 3.7  
 High school 10.8 ± 7.5   19.1 ± 4.8  
 Bachelor 11.0 ± 6.6   19.0 ± 4.0  
 Master of Science 8.8 ± 6.0   17.8 ± 4.0  
 Ph.D. 9.0 ± 4.8   15.2 ± 3.1  
School attendance   0.003   0.001
 Not a student 9.9 ± 6.6   18.2 ± 4.2  
 High School 15.9 ± 7.1   22.6 ± 2.9  
 Undergraduate 11.5 ± 6.0   18.8 ± 4.4  
 Graduate 8.5 ± 4.4   18.8 ± 2.3  
Occupation   0.002   0.60
 Medical 10.4 ± 5.7   18.8 ± 4.0  
 Non-medical 10.8 ± 7.3   18.8 ± 4.3  
Contact with COVID-19 patients   0.96   0.50
 Yes 10.7 ± 7.2   19.1 ± 3.6  
 No 10.4 ± 6.4   18.5 ± 4.2  
 Not sure 10.7 ± 7.0   19.4 ± 4.5  
Curfew type   0.19   0.03
 Complete 11.6 ± 6.5   19.5 ± 4.1  
 Partial 10.0 ± 6.6   18.1 ± 4.1  
 None 11.0 ± 0.0   24.0 ± 0.0  
Duration of curfew   0.13   0.11
 < 1 week 11.8 ± 9.3   21.0 ± 4.7  
 2–3 weeks 7.8 ± 5.0   18.7 ± 3.8  
 4–8 weeks 9.1 ± 6.0   17.5 ± 4.3  
 >8 weeks 11.2 ± 6.8   19.0 ± 4.1  
Monthly income negatively affected   0.25   0.34
 Yes 9.5 ± 6.2   18.2 ± 4.4  
 No 11.0 ± 6.9   18.9 ± 4.0  
 Not sure 11.5 ± 5.9   19.4 ± 3.9  
Worked from home   0.90   0.92
 Yes 10.1 ± 6.6   18.3 ± 4.2  
 No 11.1 ± 6.6   19.3 ± 4.0  
Work performance   <0.001   <0.001
 Negative 12.7 ± 6.7   19.8 ± 4.1  
 Positive 8.1 ± 6.3   17.3 ± 3.7  
 No effect 7.6 ± 4.9   17.1 ± 3.8  
  1. Total, n (%), 100 (47.8%) had depressive symptoms and 177 (84.7%) were anxious