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Table 4 Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the effect of gender and COVID-19 infection on the scores of PHQ-9

From: Assessment of new-onset depression and anxiety associated with COVID-19

  Sum of squares df Mean square F p
Gender 1485.2 1 1485.2 39.239 < .001
COVID-19 27.9 1 27.9 0.737 0.391
Gender x COVID-19 168.2 1 168.2 4.443 0.036
Residuals 19,038.8 503 37.9   
  1. PHQ Patient Health Questionnaire-9, df degrees of freedom