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Table 7 Characteristics of the subjects according to perceived stress level, n=547

From: Caffeine consumption, intoxication, and stress among female university students: a cross-sectional study

Item Mean ± SD P value
Age (year) 20.29 ± 1.91 0.105
College   0.135
 Health 21.39±6.72  
 Non-health 20.57±5.94  
Nationality   0.100
 Saudi 20.93±6.36  
 Non-Saudi 24.44±4.71  
Marital statusa   0.785
 Single 21.00±6.36  
 Married 20.55±6.17  
 Separated 23.00±6.21  
Kids   0.755
 Have kids 20.33±5.31  
 Does not have kids 21.00±6.37  
Incomea   0.008
 Enough 20.99±5.75  
 Enough with saving 20.16±6.69  
 Not enough 23.24±7.90  
 In debt 24.11±6.95  
Academic level   0.460
 Junior 20.83±6.26  
 Senior 21.24±6.51  
GPAa   0.329
 5-4.50 20.48±6.25  
 4.49-4 21.15.6.41  
 3.99-3.50 21.86±6.27  
Less than 3.49 21.50±6.05  
Academic satisfactiona   <0.001
 Very satisfied 19.33±6.17  
 Satisfied 20.23±5.95  
 Not satisfied 22.43±6.20  
 Very unsatisfied 25.86±6.57  
Chronic diseasesa   0.008
 Diagnosed 23.69±6.17  
 Not diagnosed 20.80±6.33  
Psychiatric disordersa   <0.001
 Diagnosed 25.20±6.31  
 Not diagnosed 20.52±6.20  
Psychiatric helpa   0.618
 Received help 24.79±7.39  
 Did not receive 25.69±4.98  
Smokinga   0.002
 Smoker 24.36±7.44  
 Non-smoker 20.79±0.02  
Caffeine intakea   0.045
 Low (<250 g) 20.27±6.31  
 High (>250 g) 21.40±6.38  
Caffeine intoxicationa   <0.001
 Intoxication symptoms 24.12±5.92  
 No intoxication symptoms 20.51±6.28  
  1. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation or number (%)
  2. aMissing data: 1: marital status, chronic disease, and psychiatric disorder. 2: academic satisfaction. 3: income and psychiatric help. 6: smoking. 10: GPA. 19: caffeine intake