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Table 4 Respondents’ experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic (n = 403) and statistical associations between the CBI subscales

From: Burnout and coping among healthcare providers working in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic

Factor Burnout
N (%) Personal
Mean ± SD
Total score (100)
Work-related
Mean ± SD
Total score (100)
Client related
Mean ± SD
Total score (100)
Previous experience of an infectious epidemic/pandemic
Yes 117 (29.0%) 57.8 ± 29.5 57.5 ± 24.7 52.4 ± 28.4
No 286 (71.0%) 59.3 ± 25.1 56.7 ± 21.8 51.2 ± 25.1
T-test   − 0.507 0.313 0.398
P-value   0.977 0.686 0.740
Previous experience of infection control
Yes 185 (45.9%) 58.7 ± 27.6 58.6 ± 23.4 53.4 ± 26.8
No 218 (54.1%) 59.0 ± 25.5 55.6 ± 21.9 49.9 ± 25.4
T test   − 0.115 1.305 1.353
P value   0.960 0.163 0.159
Infected with COVID-19
Yes 58 (14.4%) 61.9 ± 26.8 60.7 ± 22.1 55.5 ± 25.8
No 345 (85.6%) 58.4 ± 26.4 56.3 ± 22.7 50.9 ± 26.1
T test   0.969 1.346 1.238
P value   0.305 0.216 0.210
Tested for COVID-19
Yes 263 (65.3%) 59.6 ± 26.4 57.9 ± 22.9 52.3 ± 25.5
No 140 (34.7%) 57.6 ± 26.5 55.1 ± 21.9 50.2 ± 27.2
T test   0.698 1.185 0.765
P value   0.563 0.386 0.523
Quarantined as a result of COVID-19
Yes 191 (47.4%) 61.9 ± 25.9 58.3 ± 22.6 51.9 ± 25.6
No 212 (52.6%) 56.2 ± 26.7 55.7 ± 22.6 51.2 ± 26.6
T test   2.192 1.134 0.277
P value   0.024** 0.301 0.956
Close person (e.g. family member, friend or co-worker) infected with COVID-19
Yes 231 (57.3%) 63.4 ± 25.1 60.9 ± 21.7 54.9 ± 24.1
No 172 (42.7%) 52.8 ± 27.1 51.6 ± 22.8 46.9 ± 27.9
T test   4.033 4.203 3.117
P value   < 0.001 ** < 0.001 ** 0.008 **
Assigned to work in a different specialty due to COVID-19
Yes 167 (41.4%) 65.6 ± 25.3 61.2 ± 22.9 56.3 ± 25.7
No 236 (58.6%) 54.1 ± 26.3 53.9 ± 21.9 48.2 ± 25.9
T test   4.380 3.242 3.124
P value   < 0.001** 0.001** 0.003**
Assigned to treat patients with COVID-19
Yes 227 (56.3%) 63.9 ± 25.5 62.4 ± 22.8 56.7 ± 25.9
No 176 (43.7%) 52.3 ± 24.9 49.9 ± 20.4 44.8 ± 24.7
T test   4.469 5.712 4.659
P value   < 0.001** < 0.001** < 0.001**
Received incentives from work during COVID-19a
Yes 76 (18.9%) 61.2 ± 28.4 60.3 ± 24.4 57.5 ± 24.5
No 327 (81.1%) 58.3 ± 26.0 56.2 ± 22.1 50.2 ± 26.3
T test   0.842 1.428 2.206
P value   0.313 0.120 0.009**
Working hours affected by COVID-19a
Yes 277 (68.7%) 61.7 ± 25.9 59.8 ± 22.4 53.7 ± 26.7
No 126 (31.3%) 52.7 ± 26.7 50.8 ± 21.9 46.8 ± 24.1
T test   3.210 3.766 2.482
P value   0.003** < 0.001** 0.02**
Average daily working hours during COVID-19b
8 h 96 (23.8%) 49.7 ± 25.0 47.5 ± 20.1 45.8 ± 24.6
> 8 h 75 (18.6%) 56.7 ± 23.9 56.1 ± 20.6 50.0 ± 23.7
> 10 h 51 (12.7%) 56.4 ± 27.4 50.2 ± 21.4 43.9 ± 26.8
> 12 h 181 (44.9%) 65.4 ± 26.4 64.2 ± 22.7 57.4 ± 26.4
F test   8.313 14.637 6.339
P value   < 0.001** < 0.001** 0.001**
Sleeping hours affected by COVID-19a
Yes 236 (58.6%) 65.2 ± 27.1 62.4 ± 22.9 56.5 ± 26.8
No 167 (41.4%) 50.0 ± 22.8 49.2 ± 19.8 44.5 ± 23.3
T test   5.902 6.015 4.669
P value   < 0.001** < 0.001** < 0.001**
Exposed to verbal or physical violence while working with COVID-19a patients
Yes 136 (33.7%) 67.5 ± 27.9 65.9 ± 24.4 62.7 ± 26.5
No 267 (66.3%) 54.5 ± 24.6 52.4 ± 20.3 45.9 ± 23.9
T test   4.789 5.870 6.423
P value   < 0.001** < 0.001** < 0.001**
  1. **Significant at the p < 0.05 level
  2. ap value calculated using the Mann-Whitney U test
  3. bp value calculated using the Kruskal-Wallis test