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Table 3 Respondents’ sociodemographic characteristics (n = 403) and statistical associations between the CBI subscales

From: Burnout and coping among healthcare providers working in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic

Factor Burnout
N (%) Personal
Mean ± SD
Total score (100)
Work-related
Mean ± SD
Total score (100)
Client-related
Mean ± SD
Total score (100)
Age groupa
22–35 years 244 (60.5%) 61.4 ± 25.5 59.7 ± 23.4 54.8 ± 27.1
> 35 years 159 (39.5%) 55.0 ± 25.9 52.7 ± 20.7 46.5 ± 23.7
T test   2.388 3.102 3.192
P value   0.025** 0.001** 0.002**
Gendera
Male 97 (24.1%) 58.4 ± 27.5 55.9 ± 23.4 55.0 ± 23.4
Female 306 (75.9%) 59.0 ± 26.2 57.3 ± 22.4 50.4 ± 26.8
T test   − 0.215 − 0.550 1.513
P value   0.920 0.779 0.131
Nationalitya
Saudi 182 (45.2%) 59.4 ± 26.3 57.8 ± 22.6 53.7 ± 25.4
Non-Saudi 221 (54.8%) 58.4 ± 26.7 56.2 ± 22.7 49.8 ± 26.5
T test   0.379 0.703 1.485
P value   0.694 0.222 0.076
Marital statusa
Unmarried 173 (42.9%) 60.9 ± 26.1 58.2 ± 23.1 52.8 ± 26.5
Married 230 (57.1%) 57.3 ± 26.7 56.1 ± 22.3 50.6 ± 25.8
T test   1.384 0.922 0.837
P value   0.179 0.313 0.234
Positiona
Physician 85 (21.1%) 50.6 ± 28.5 47.2 ± 24.1 44.0 ± 25.1
Nurse 318 (78.9%) 61.1 ± 25.5 59.6 ± 21.5 53.6 ± 25.9
T test   − 3.292 − 4.594 − 3.024
P value   0.002** <0.001** 0.001**
Working regiona
Central region 211 (52.4%) 58.2 ± 24.4 56.7 ± 21.8 52.2 ± 25.6
Northern region 37 (09.2%) 56.1 ± 32.1 49.4 ± 22.4 43.5 ± 29.0
Eastern region 58 (14.4%) 61.2 ± 26.1 61.6 ± 20.2 53.4 ± 25.5
Western region 55 (13.6%) 58.9 ± 29.8 57.3 ± 26.3 50.9 ± 24.8
Southern region 42 (10.4%) 61.7 ± 27.6 57.9 ± 23.9 53.5 ± 27.9
F test   0.371 1.688 1.062
P value   0.881 0.166 0.238
Number of family membersb
None 46 (11.4%) 54.4 ± 28.0 51.8 ± 21.4 43.7 ± 26.1
1–5 262 (65.0%) 58.6 ± 25.8 56.5 ± 22.6 51.7 ± 26.4
6–10 71 (17.6%) 64.4 ± 24.4 62.2 ± 22.4 57.2 ± 24.1
> 10 24 (06.0%) 54.3 ± 34.8 55.8 ± 24.0 48.6 ± 25.8
F test   1.709 2.152 2.659
P value   0.135 0.031** 0.048**
Physicians’ professional rank (n = 85)a
Service 06 (07.1%) 38.9 ± 20.0 39.9 ± 21.4 37.5 ± 20.6
Resident trainee 30 (35.3%) 58.9 ± 30.5 49.8 ± 26.3 42.6 ± 26.7
Consultant 28 (32.9%) 46.1 ± 28.4 48.1 ± 23.0 45.9 ± 22.2
Specialist 21 (24.7%) 48.0 ± 26.5 44.4 ± 24.1 45.2 ± 29.9
F test   1.497 0.396 0.232
P value   0.271 0.861 0.756
Nurses’ education levelb
Diploma 39 (12.3%) 52.6 ± 26.4 51.6 ± 15.2 50.7 ± 22.0
Bachelor’s 228 (71.7%) 61.8 ± 25.1 60.5 ± 22.5 53.2 ± 27.2
Masters or PhD 51 (16.1%) 64.7 ± 25.5 61.3 ± 20.2 57.3 ± 23.2
F test   2.805 3.158 0.769
P value   0.020** 0.009** 0.489
Years of experience in the medical fielda
≤ 6 years 181 (45%) 62.8 ± 27.0 60.8 ± 24.1 55.8 ± 27.2
> 6 years 222 (55.1%) 55.6 ± 25.6 53.8 ± 20.9 48.1 ± 24.7
T test   2.737 3.107 2.975
P value   0.008** 0.001** 0.003**
Monthly income (SAR)b
≤ 8000 203 ((50.4%) 61.6 ± 25.8 59.2 ± 22.2 52.8 ± 26.4
8001–15,000 101 (25.1%) 55.3 ± 25.9 52.0 ± 23.6 50.1 ± 26.4
> 15,000 99 (24.6%) 48.3 ± 26.9 50.1 ± 23.0 44.7 ± 22.8
F test   5.365 4.678 1.765
P value   0.008** 0.019** 0.188
Income affected by COVID-19b
Yes, higher 82 (20.3%) 63.3 ± 28.6 58.4 ± 25.6 53.5 ± 25.1
Yes, lower 79 (19.6%) 65.2 ± 26.1 61.9 ± 20.9 55.3 ± 23.6
No change 242 (60.0%) 55.3 ± 25.3 54.8 ± 21.9 49.7 ± 27.1
F test   5.718 3.149 1.658
P value   0.002** 0.017** 0.154
Working sectorb
Primary healthcare 71 (17.6%) 56.5 ± 23.5 52.9 ± 20.4 49.0 ± 21.2
Government hospital 272 (67.5%) 61.4 ± 26.2 59.1 ± 23.3 52.7 ± 27.3
Private hospital 39 (09.7%) 52.2 ± 29.2 53.9 ± 18.0 52.2 ± 23.3
University hospital 21 (05.2%) 47.4 ± 29.5 47.9 ± 25.2 44.2 ± 29.4
F test   3.171 2.980 0.950
P value   0.021** 0.063 0.533
Has a chronic diseasea
Yes 44 (10.9%) 58.2 ± 26.0 54.9 ± 22.3 52.1 ± 22.9
No 359 (89.1%) 58.9 ± 26.5 57.2 ± 22.7 51.5 ± 26.5
T test   − 0.170 − 0.648 0.146
P value   0.975 0.601 0.996
  1. **significant at the p < 0.05 level
  2. ap value has been calculated using the Mann Whitney U test
  3. bp value has been calculated using the Kruskal-Wallis test