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Table 4 Association between HADS–Depression and demographic and clinical characteristics of the studied patients

From: Depressive, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress symptoms affecting hospitalized and home-isolated COVID-19 patients: a comparative cross-sectional study

Demographic and clinical characteristics Normal Borderline Abnormal P
No. % No. % No. %
Age:
 ˂ 40 years old (n = 44) 13 29.5 11 25.0 20 45.5 0.1
 ≥ 40 years old (n = 45) 6 13.3 14 31.1 25 55.6  
Sex:
 Male (n = 61) 18 29.5 14 23.0 29 47.5 0.01**
 Female (n = 28) 1 3.6 11 39.3 16 57.1
Marital status:
 Married (n = 59) 17 28.8 15 25.4 27 45.8 0.06
 Single/divorced/widow (n = 30) 2 6.7 10 33.3 18 60.0
Education level:
 Primary, preparatory, and secondary education (n = 17) 4 23.5 2 11.8 11 64.7 0.2
 High- and post-graduate education (n = 72) 15 20.8 23 31.9 34 47.2
Occupation:
 Medical (n = 35) 14 40.0 7 20.0 14 40.0 <0.001**
 Non-medical (n = 54) 5 9.3 18 33.3 31 60.9
Residence:
 Urban (n = 45) 13 28.9 11 24.4 21 46.7 0.2
 Rural (n = 44) 6 13.6 14 31.8 24 54.5
Chronic disease (n = 35) 12 34.2 8 22.9 15 42.9 0.6
Smoking (n = 27) 9 33.3 7 25.9 11 40.7 0.1
History of psychiatric disorder (n = 16) 5 31.3 5 31.3 6 37.4 0.4
Family history of psychiatric disorder (n = 27) 8 29.6 1 3.7 18 66.7 0.003**
  1. Test of significance: chi-square for linear trend
  2. **Statistical significance