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Table 4 Association between dietary changes during COVID-19 and depression, anxiety, and insomnia symptoms among the participants (n = 447)

From: Psychiatric morbidity and dietary habits during COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study among Egyptian Youth (14–24 years)

  Depression, n (%) Anxiety, n (%) Insomnia, n (%)
No 87 (19.5) Yes 360 (80.5) No 116 (26.0) Yes 331 (74.0) No 117 (26.2) Yes 330 (73.8)
Bodyweight change
 No change 66 (34.7) 124 (65.3) 82 (43.2) 108 (56.8) 77 (40.5) 113 (59.5)
 Weight loss 7 (7.8) 83 (92.2) 10 (11.1) 80 (88.9) 9 (10.0) 81 (90.0)
 Weight gain 14 (8.4) 153 (91.6) 24 (14.4) 143 (85.6) 31 (18.6) 136 (81.4)
 P value < 0.001 * < 0.001 * < 0.001 *
No. of meals/ day
 No change 69 (30.8) 155 (69.2) 91 (40.6) 133 (59.4) 88 (39.3) 136 (60.7)
 Decreased 6 (5.0) 114 (95.0) 10 (8.3) 110 (91.7) 9 (7.5) 111 (92.5)
 Increased 12 (11.7) 91 (88.3) 15 (14.6) 88 (85.4) 20 (19.4) 83 (80.6)
 P value < 0.001 * < 0.001 * < 0.001 *
Changes of dietary habits
 No change 33 (21.7) 119 (78.3) 50 (32.9) 102 (67.1) 56 (36.8) 96 (63.2)
 Loss of/poor appetite 3 (4.0) 72 (96.0) 6 (8.0) 69 (92.0) 3 (4.0) 72 (96.0)
 Increased consumption of junk food 8 (7.4) 100 (92.6) 11 (10.2) 97 (89.8) 16 (14.8) 92 (85.2)
 Increased consumption of healthy food 43 (38.4) 69 (61.6) 49 (43.8) 63 (56.2) 42 (37.5) 70 (62.5)
 P value < 0.001 * < 0.001 * < 0.001 *
Emotional eating
 Not a habit at all 70 (27.9) 181 (72.1) 88 (35.1) 163 (64.9) 80 (31.9) 171 (68.1)
 A habit before COVID-19 12 (10.3) 104 (89.7) 21 (18.1) 95 (81.9) 24 (20.7) 92 (79.3)
 A new habit during COVID-19 5 (6.3) 75 (93.8) 7 (8.8) 73 (91.3) 13 (16.2) 67 (83.8)
 P value < 0.001 * < 0.001 * < 0.006 *
Night eating
 Not a habit at all 52 (33.1) 105 (66.9) 59 (37.6) 98 (62.4) 68 (43.3) 89 (56.7)
 A habit before COVID-19 21 (13.2) 138 (86.8) 39 (24.5) 120 (75.5) 27 (17.0) 132 (83.0)
 A new habit during COVID-19 14 (10.7) 117 (89.3) 18 (13.7) 113 (86.3) 22 (16.8) 109 (83.2%)
 P value < 0.001 * < 0.001 * < 0.001 *
Consumption of carbonated beverage
 No change 60 (26.3) 168 (73.7) 70 (30.7) 158 (69.3) 72 (31.6) 156 (68.4)
 Decreased 22 (16.8) 109 (83.2) 34 (26.0) 97 (74.0) 34 (26.0) 97 (74.0)
 Increased 5 (5.7) 83 (94.3) 12 (13.6) 76 (86.4) 11 (12.5) 77 (87.5)
 P value < 0.001 * 0.008 * < 0.003 *
Consumption of caffeinated and energy drinks
 No change 60 (27.0) 162 (73.0) 70 (31.5) 152 (68.5) 76 (34.2) 146 (65.8)
 Decreased 17 (17.7) 79 (82.3) 23 (24.0) 73 (76.0) 21 (21.9) 75 (78.1)
 Increased 10 (7.8) 119 (92.2) 23 (17.8) 106 (82.2) 20 (15.5) 109 (84.5)
 P value < 0.001 * 0.016 * < 0.001 *
  1. COVID-19 coronavirus disease 2019
  2. *P < 0.05