Skip to main content

Table 8 Differences in mean “perception of efficacy and self-efficacy” scores, according to country of origin

From: Risk perception regarding the COVID-19 outbreak among the general population: a comparative Middle East survey

Perception of efficacy and self-efficacy Saudi Arabia Egypt Jordan Total Kruskal-Wallis test P value
n = 468 n = 162 n = 93 N = 723
1. Do you think that frequent hand hygiene helps to prevent COVID-19?
 M ± SD 4.56 ± 0.936 4.07 ± 0.902 4.55 ± 0.841 4.45 ± 1.938 Chi-square = 68.700 < .001**
 Mean rank 393.96 262.94 373.71
2. Do you think that wearing masks helps to prevent COVID-19?
 M ± SD 3.83 ± 1.104 3.61 ± 0.934 4.16 ± 1.145 3.83 ± 1.084 Chi-square = 25.954 < .001**
 Mean rank 365.02 308.44 440.1
3. Do you think that maintaining social distancing helps to prevent COVID-19?
 M ± SD 4.80 ± 0.549 4.09 ± 0.825 4.74 ± 0.509 4.63 ± 0.682 Chi-square = 166.683 < .001**
 Mean rank 408.02 217.97 381.31
4. Do you think that quarantine helps to prevent COVID-19?
 M±SD 4.82 ± 0.561 4.31 ± 0.768 4.74 ± 0.509 4.70 ± 0.641 Chi-square = 110.845 < .001**
 Mean rank 398.96 255.17 362.10
5. Do you think that you will manage to implement hand hygiene, if this is advised?
 M ± SD 4.80 ± 0.525 4.20 ± 0.953 4.71 ± 0.582 4.6 6± 0.695 Chi-square = 93.544 < .001**
 Mean rank 396.31 258.92 368.92
6. Do you think that you will manage to implement mask-wearing, if this is advised?
 M ± SD 4.56 ± 0.727 4.04 ± 0.984 4.35 ± 0.868 4.42 ± 0.837 Chi-square = 49.050 < .001**
 Mean rank 394.11 279.14 344.77
7. Do you think that you will manage to implement social distancing, if this is advised?
 M ± SD 4.73 ± 0.571 4.09 ± 1.026 4.39 ± 0.708 4.54 ± 0.762 Chi-square = 84.597 < .001**
 Mean rank 404.69 269.50 308.29
8. Do you think that you will manage to implement quarantine, if this is advised?
 M ± SD 4.79 ± 0.520 4.26 ± 0.846 4.42 ± 0.712 4.62 ± 0.672 Chi-square = 92.419 < .001**
 Mean rank 404.86 272.89 301.56
Total self-efficacy scores
 M ± SD 4.6130 ± 0.4762 4.0856 ± 0.6541 4.5081 ± 0.4329 4.4813 ± 0.5589 Chi-square = 99.540 < .001**
 Mean rank 412.2 224.31 349.23
  1. M mean, SD standard deviation
  2. **Significant at the .01 level (two-tailed)