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Table 12 Differences in mean self-efficacy total scores, according to sociodemographic characteristics

From: Risk perception regarding the COVID-19 outbreak among the general population: a comparative Middle East survey

Sociodemographics M ± SD Mean rank Test P value
Age
 Younger than 24 years 4.47 ± 0.57 365.51 Kruskal-Wallis Test
Chi-square = 13.794
.032*
 25–29 years 4.46 ± 0.66 353.28
 30–34 years 4.43 ± 0.63 332.44
 35–39 years 4.59 ± 0.48 398.39
 40–44 years 4.48 ± 0.39 381.05
 45–49 years 4.42 ± 0.54 325.15
 50 years and older 4.39 ± 0.49 313.08
Gender
 Male 4.40 ± 0.62 338.67 Mann-Whitney U test = 49878 < .001**
 Female 4.62 ± 0.39 402.57
Marital status
 Single 4.49 ± 0.53 363.24 Mann-Whitney U test = 46984.5 .929
 Married 4.47 ± 0.56 361.62
Education
 School 4.51 ± 0.56 362.5 Kruskal-Wallis test
Chi-square = 29.613
< .001**
 Diploma 4.25 ± 0.67 291.9
 Bachelor’s degree 4.57 ± 0.48 395.68
 Postgraduate studies 4.55 ± 0.35 372.17
  1. M mean, SD standard deviation
  2. *Significant at the .05 level (two-tailed)
  3. **Significant at the .01 level (two-tailed)