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Table 3 Relation between other comorbidities and executive function among the studied children

From: A comparative study of executive functions among children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder and those with learning disabilities

  Comorbidity χ2 P
  No comorbidity (n = 203) Nocturnal enuresis and delayed language (n = 37) Mood or anxiety comorbidity (n = 37) Disruptive behavior comorbidity (n = 45) Epilepsy (n = 18)
  No. % No. % No. % No. % No. %
Time management EF
 No 124 61.1 7 18.9 8 21.6 11 24.4 12 66.7 49.303* < 0.001*
 Yes 79 38.9 30 81.1 29 78.4 34 75.6 6 33.3
  p1   < 0.001* < 0.001* < 0.001* 0.641   
Problem solving and self-organization EF
 No 142 70.0 17 45.9 14 37.8 15 33.3 0 0.0 54.552* < 0.001*
 Yes 61 30.0 20 54.1 23 62.2 30 66.7 18 100.0
  p1   0.005* < 0.001* < 0.001* < 0.001*   
Self-restraint executive function
 No 146 71.9 13 35.1 12 32.4 6 13.3 4 22.2 75.506* < 0.001*
 Yes 57 28.1 24 64.9 25 67.6 39 86.7 14 77.8
  p1   < 0.001* < 0.001* < 0.001* < 0.001*   
Self-motivation EF
 No 146 71.9 9 24.3 13 35.1 15 33.3 5 27.8 57.434* < 0.001*
 Yes 57 28.1 28 75.7 24 64.9 30 66.7 13 72.2
  p1   < 0.001* < 0.001* < 0.001* < 0.001*   
Emotional regulation EF
 No 168 82.8 8 21.6 3 8.1 1 2.2 2 11.1 176.191* < 0.001*
 Yes 35 17.2 29 78.4 34 91.9 44 97.8 16 88.9
  p1   < 0.001* < 0.001* < 0.001* < 0.001*   
  1. *Statistically significant