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Table 1 Comparison between the different studied groups according to different executive functions domains

From: A comparative study of executive functions among children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder and those with learning disabilities

  Group I (n = 100) Group II (n = 80) Group III (n = 60) Group IV (n = 100) χ2 p
  No. % No. % No. % No. %
Time management EF
 No 43 43.0 15 18.8 6 10.0 98 98.0 163.379* < 0.001*
 Yes 57 57.0 65 81.3 54 90.0 2 2.0
  p1 < 0.001* < 0.001* < 0.001*     
 Sig. bet. grps. p2 = 0.001*, p3 < 0.001*, p4 = 0.151     
Problem solving and self-organization EF
 No 59 59.0 15 18.8 15 25.0 99 99.0 143.325* < 0.001*
 Yes 41 41.0 65 81.3 45 75.0 1 1.0
  p1 < 0.001* < 0.001* < 0.001*     
 Sig. bet. grps. p2 < 0.001*, p3 < 0.001*, p4 = 0.372     
Self-restraint executive function
 No 7 7.0 59 73.8 16 26.7 99 99.0 200.533* < 0.001*
 Yes 93 93.0 21 26.3 44 73.3 1 1.0
  p1 < 0.001* < 0.001* < 0.001*     
 Sig. bet. grps. p2 < 0.001*, p3 = 0.001*, p4 < 0.001*     
Self-motivation EF
 No 40 40.0 34 42.5 16 26.7 98 98.0 108.431* < 0.001*
 Yes 60 60.0 46 57.5 44 73.3 2 2.0
  p1 < 0.001* < 0.001* < 0.001*     
 Sig. bet. grps. p2 = 0.735, p3 = 0.087, p4 = 0.053     
Emotional regulation EF
 No 27 27.0 43 53.8 16 26.7 96 96.0 118.212* < 0.001*
 Yes 73 73.0 37 46.3 44 73.3 4 4.0
  p1 < 0.001* < 0.001* < 0.001*     
 Sig. bet. grps. p2 < 0.001*, p3 = 0.963, p4 = 0.001*     
  1. *Statistically significant