Skip to main content

Table 3 Prevalence of depression (PHQ-9) among groups during the outbreak of COVID-19 in Kuwait

From: Anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic in Kuwait: the importance of physical activity

Sociodemographic characteristics Depression level Depressed χ2 P value
Normal Mild Moderate Moderate to severe Severe
519 399 199 108 59 765
40.42% 31.07% 15.50% 8.41% 4.60% 59.6%
Physical activity Physically inactive 222 222 132 72 45 471 57.694 < 0.001
32.00% 32.00% 19.00% 10.40% 6.50% 68.0%
Physically active 297 177 67 36 14 294
50.30% 29.90% 11.30% 6.10% 2.40% 49.7%
Gender Female 176 176 102 81 42 401 84.697 < 0.001
30.50% 30.50% 17.70% 14.00% 7.30% 69.5%
Male 343 223 97 27 17 364
48.50% 31.50% 13.70% 3.80% 2.40% 51.5%
Education High school and less 43 29 19 14 5 67 29.642 0.003
39.10% 26.40% 17.30% 12.70% 4.50% 60.9%
Diploma 63 56 26 11 9 102
38.20% 33.90% 15.80% 6.70% 5.50% 61.8%
Bachelor’s degree 281 240 129 70 39 478
37.00% 31.60% 17.00% 9.20% 5.10% 63.0%
Higher education 132 74 25 13 6 118
52.80% 29.60% 10.00% 5.20% 2.40% 47.2%
Marital status Single 190 209 105 60 44 418 50.869 < 0.001
31.30% 34.40% 17.30% 9.90% 7.20% 68.8%
Married 329 190 94 48 15 347
48.70% 28.10% 13.90% 7.10% 2.20% 51.3%
Occupation Employer 73 102 54 37 20 213 61.492 < 0.001
25.50% 35.70% 18.90% 12.90% 7.00% 74.5%
Student 379 272 131 62 30 495
43.40% 31.10% 15.00% 7.10% 3.40% 56.6%
Retired 44 12 3 3 5 23
65.70% 17.90% 4.50% 4.50% 7.50% 34.3%
Unemployed 23 13 11 6 4 34
40.40% 22.80% 19.30% 10.50% 7.00% 59.6%
  1. “Depressed” column represents all respondents who scored 5 to 27 in PHQ-9 scale (i.e., mild, moderate, moderate to severe, and severe depression); % within independent variable groups