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Table 5 Logistic regression analysis of sociodemographic and diabetes-related variables in relation to cognitive impairment among patients with diabetes

From: Cognitive impairment among patients with diabetes in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study

Factor Cognitive impairment Severe cognitive impairment
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Older age category ≥ 50 1.27 0.56–2.86 1.46 0.60–3.52
Female gender 0.49 0.21–1.15 1.06 0.49–2.30
Low level of education 4.67 2.11–10.33* 5.86 2.57–13.35*
Occupation (employed) 0.58 0.27–1.26 0.57 0.27–1.23
Income (Low income) 4.59 0.57–37.31 1.34 0.56–3.21
Not exercising 1.00 0.47–2.09 1.54 0.84–2.86
Duration of diabetes 1.23 0.74–1.70 1.17 0.85–1.61
Diabetes distress of any level 2.26 1.04–4.89* 1.02 0.55–1.88
Ophthalmic complication 1.21 0.57–2.54 2.19 1.14–4.19*
HbA1c level 0.96 0.75–1.23 1.05 0.86–1.27
Dyslipidemia 2.06 0.58–7.23 1.29 0.41–4.07
  1. Cognitive impairment: measured by Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale (MoCA), total score equals 30; the score was adjusted for the low level of education by adding 1 point for an individual who has 12 years or fewer of formal education. The cutoff of cognitive impairment is < 26 points, and the cutoff of severe cognitive impairment is < 20 points. Diabetes distress was measured by Arabic version of DDS-17. The cutoff for clinically significant DRD is > 2. Dyslipidemia: high levels of LDL, TG, and low level of HDL
  2. *P < 0.05