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Table 5 Prevalence of cognitive impairment and dementia

From: A systematic review of the prevalence of mental and neurocognitive disorders amongst older adults’ populace in Egypt

Study no. Mental/neurocognitive condition studied Data collection settings Prevalence rate Diagnostic test (*, Arabic version; ^, shorter version; !, longer version; [ ], cut-off point; ", translated to Arabic)
1 Cognitive impairment Residential homes 38.30% MMSE*; MoCA* [< 26] bonus point given for less than 12 years education
4 Cognitive impairment Community clubs 34.2 and 44.3% in healthy men and women, respectively MOCA*, similar to English version, ≤ 26 with no functional impairment = MCI; ≤ 26 with functional impairment = early dementia, bonus point given for less than 12 years education
6 Cognitive impairment
Depression
Inpatient Cognitive impairment = 30%
Depression = 72%
MMSE [≤ 23]
GDS [≥ 6]
7 Dementia (then further classified as AD*, MID*, MD*, and Sec D*) Household community survey Dementia = 4.5%
(AD 2.2%, MID 0.95%, MD 0.55%, SeD 0.45%)
MMSE of 28 points [≤ 21] and other diagnostic tools for further classification of dementia (see article)
8 Cognitive impairment
Dementia*
(then further classified as AD*, VaD*, PDD*, and Mixed*)
Household community survey Cognitive impairment = 1.74%
Dementia = 5.07%
(AD 1.74%, VaD 1.3%, PDD 1.01%, MD 0.58%)
MMSE of 28 points [23 educated individuals and 21 illiterate)
- MES- Memory and Executive Screening test [> 75 normal; 62–75 MCI; < 62 dementia suspects] and other diagnostic tools for further classification of dementia (see article)
9 Dementia
(then further classified as AD*, MD*, VaD*, others, and undet*)
Outpatient Dementia = 3.66%
(AD 1.4%, VaD 1.05%, MD 0.5%, Others 0.44%, Undetermined 0.22%)
Standardized MMSE of 30 points (23 educated individuals and 21 illiterate)
and other diagnostic tools for further classification of dementia (see article)
11 Cognitive impairment
Dementia
Unclear Cognitive impairment, 34%
Mild dementia, 23.3%
Moderate dementia, 8.5%
Severe dementia, 7.4
MMSE of 30 points [0–10, severe; 11–20, moderate; 21–25, early dementia; 29–30, MCI]
13 Cognitive impairment Community??? Unclear Cognitive impairment = 32% MMSE* (unspecified but stated that individuals below 24 were excluded)
MOCA*[< 26]
Bonus point given for less than 12 years education
14 Cognitive impairment
Dementia
Community clubs Cognitive impairment = 51.4%
Dementia = 5.6%
MMSE of 30 points
SLUMS*, score depends on level of education
For high education (normal = 27–30; mild neurocognitive disorder = 21–26; dementia = 1–20)
For less high school education (normal = 25–30; mild neurocognitive disorder = 20–24, dementia = 1–19)
15 Cognitive impairment
Depression
Anxiety
Inpatient Cognitive impairment = 26%
Depression = 64%
Anxiety = 72%
Anxiety traits = 35%
MMSE*[CI = ≤ 24]
GDS*
STAI*
  1. AD* Alzheimer’s disease, VaD* vascular dementia, MD* mixed dementia, MID* multi-infarct dementia, SeD* secondary dementia, PDD* Parkinson’s disease dementia