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Table 4 Comparison between adolescents with conduct disorder, with and without ADHD, and control adolescents regarding subcortical volumes (cm3)

From: Volumetric brain abnormalities in adolescents with conduct disorder with and without attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: a case control study

Area Control (n = 20) CD only (n = 13) ADHD + CD (n = 14) F p value
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
Right putamen 6.406 0.806 5.797 0.828 6.021 0.427 2.99 0.06
Right pallidum 1.805 0.259 2.032 0.429 2.073 0.364 3.05 0.06
Right hippocampus 4.412a 0.451 3.663b 0.482 3.369b 0.631 18.43 ≤ 0.001
Right amygdala 1.752a 0.278 1.419b 0.235 1.360b 0.471 6.76 0.003
Right accumbens nucleus 0.760a 0.149 0.572b 0.078 0.674a, b 0.053 11.63 ≤ 0.001
Right cerebellar white matter 15.331a 2.602 12.658b 1.221 12.528b 0.810 12.3 0.0001
Right cerebellar grey matter 59.068a 6.307 51.189b 6.299 49.727b 7.366 9.9 0.0003
Left putamen 6.513a 0.888 5.777b 0.830 6.230a, b 0.308 3.84 0.03
Left pallidum 1.951 0.365 1.810 0.319 1.971 0.271 1.00 0.4
Left hippocampus 4.410a 0.620 3.893b 0.429 3.287c 0.527 17.46 ≤ 0.001
Left amygdala 1.717a 0.270 1.266b 0.150 1.162b 0.144 34.31 ≤ 0.001
Left accumbens nucleus 6.406a 0.806 5.797b 0.828 6.021a 0.427 6.50 0.003
Left cerebellar white matter 14.784a 2.388 12.587b 0.992 13.076b 1.400 6.8 0.003
Left cerebellar grey matter 58.266a 6.604 50.250b 5.710 49.582b 6.680 9.9 ≤ 0.001
  1. Comparisons were done using ANOVA test for all variables (p values ≤ 0.05)
  2. Different superscripts mean significant difference between groups after Bonferroni correction.